Vega II AK-17 - History

Vega II AK-17 - History

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Vega II

(AK-17: dp. 11,320; 1. 401'1", b. 64'0", dr. 20'0", s. 11.6 k.; cpl. 227; a. 2 6"; cl. Sirius)

Lebanon-a single-screw, steel-hulled freighter built in 1919 under a United States Shipping Board contract at Hog Island, Pa., by the American International Shipbuilding Co.—was acquired by the Navy on 2 December 1921. Renamed Vega and given the classification of AK-17, she fitted out for Navy service and commissioned at the Boston Navy Yard on 21 December 1921, Lt. William H. Newman, USNRF, in command.

Assigned to the Naval Transportation Service, Vega served the pre-World War II Navy from Atlantic to Pacific on cargo runs which included calls at both east and west coast ports, as well as visits to the Far East and the Caribbean. During the first three years of her naval service, Vega completed six round-trip voyages from San Francisco to Asiatie waters before returning home in October 1924. In successive summers from 1925 to 1928, the cargo vessel operated between Seattle, Wash., and Alaskan ports, carrying supplies and stores to naval radio stations at St. Paul and Dutch Harbor. In addition, Vega and sistership Sirius (AK-16) carried general freight, heavy guns, and ordnance parts in support of Marine peace-keeping activities in Nicaragua. Among Vega's cruises were voyages in 1928 carrying supplies for the Bureau of Fisheries, Commerce Department to seal rookeries on Pribilof and other Alaskan islands. She returned with seal skins garnered during supervised killings.

Vega operated in unglamorous but vital logistical duties into the 1930's as the tide of war crept closer toward the United States. On 6 December 1941, Vega arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii-her holds laden with ammunition for the Naval Ammunition Depot, Pearl Harbor, and an Army derrick barge in tow-moored to Pier 31 and commenced unloading her cargo at 0100 on 7 December. When Japanese planes swept over Oahu, Vega went to general quarters as civilian stevedores continued the arduous job of unloading her dangerous cargo. Since the Japanese were after bigger game, the Hog Islander and her vital cargo emerged from the attack unscathed.

Vega remained in the Hawaiian Islands until 3 January 1942, when she got underway with a cargo of civilian automobiles and pineapples. She arrived at San Francisco 10 days later and soon entered Mare Island Navy Yard for refit. She returned to Hawaiian waters on 10 March. After detaching her tow, Progress (AMc-98), and unloading construction gear, the cargo vessel loaded another cargo of pineapples and civilian dependents' gear and got underway for the west coast on 20 March.

Transferred to the operational control of Commandant, 13th Naval District, Vega departed San Francisco for Tacoma, Wash., on 9 April. From then until 9 January 1944, the cargo vessel operated out of Tacoma and Seattle, carrying vital construction materials and supporting American operations against the Japanese invaders in the Aleutian Islands. On one run, Vega delivered a cargo of naval stores and ammunition, as well as some 20-millimeter antiaircraft guns for the garrison at Dutch Harbor-only a few days before the devastating bombardment of that base by a Japanese cruiser task force in early June 1942.

The ship returned to San Francisco early in 1944 and was soon assigned to Service Squadron (ServRon) 8. During the next year, the cargo vessel supported three major amphibious operations-in the Marianas, the Western Carolines, and at Okinawa-carrying vital supplies and construction materials to assist the famed "Seabees" in establishing the advance bases so necessary to the smooth operation of the Fleet. She picked up her first load of pontoon barges at Pearl Harbor and got underway for the Gilbert Islands on 31 January. However, her orders were changed en route, sending her to the Marshalls. She arrived at Kwajalein atoll on 6 March, unloaded the barges, and returned to San Francisco for another load. Departing San Francisco on 18 May, she unloaded at Guam before steaming back to the Russells to pick up another load at Banika Island.

On 23 October 1944, Vega commenced loading empty brass powder cans at Ulithi in the Carolines, while her embarked "Seabee" battalion-the 1044th-assembled self-propelled barges brought out in SS Claremont. Subsequently, the cargo vessel sailed for Eniwetok where she took on board another load of brass easings, heading for Pearl Harbor on 30 December, en route to the west coast. She made port at San Francisco, a familiar terminus for the ship, on 18 January 1946. Vega departed the west coast with another load of barges on 9 March bound, via Eniwetok and Ulithi, for the Ryukyus. Dropping anchor off Okinawa on 13 June, Vega began assembling pontoon barges; and, three days later, during a Japanese air raid on her anchorage, the cargo vessel downed a twin-engined bomber before its pilot could drop his bombs.

Departing Okinawa on 6 July, the cargo vessel sailed, via Pearl Harbor, for the west coast and arrived at San Pedro soon thereafter. Offloading empty brass picked up at Pearl Harbor, Vega transported a cargo of dry stores to San Francisco before proceeding on to Oakland, Calif., where she was decommissioned on 15 January 1946. Struck from the Navy list on 12 March, she was turned over to the Maritime Commission on 1 July. The veteran cargo vessel was sold on 6 August to the National Metals and Steel Corp. for scrapping.

Vega received four battle stars for her World War II service.

Chevrolet Cosworth Vega

The Chevrolet Cosworth Vega is a subcompact four-passenger automobile produced by Chevrolet for the 1975 and 1976 model years. It is a limited-production version of the Chevrolet Vega, with higher performance.

Chevrolet developed the car's all-aluminum inline-four 122 cu in (1,999 cc) engine, and British company Cosworth Engineering designed the DOHC cylinder head. 5,000 engines were built.

3,508 cars were made. They were priced nearly double that of a base Vega and only $900 below the 1975 Chevrolet Corvette. [1]

Firearms History, Technology & Development

In our last couple of posts, we looked at certain types of steel alloys which are used in firearm construction. In today's post, we will look at another type of steel alloy that was invented in 1912 and used in some firearms: stainless steel.

Stainless steel is a steel alloy that contains a high percentage of chromium (greater than 10.5% by weight). Unlike ordinary carbon steels, it has good resistance against corrosion and rusting. This is because of the high chromium content. What happens is that the chromium at the surface of the object reacts with the oxygen in the air, to form a thin layer of chromium oxide. This chromium oxide layer prevents oxygen from reaching the inner steel and therefore blocks rusting and corrosion. It must be remembered that while stainless steel is rust-resistant, it is not rust-proof.

Fittingly, the invention of stainless steel was actually related to firearms. Harry Brearley, an English chemist was working in Sheffield, England for Brown Firth research labs in 1912, trying to find a new steel that could resist erosion caused by high temperatures of gun barrels. It was already known at that time that adding a little chromium to steel increases the melting point of steel. He was trying to establish precisely, the relationship between melting points and chromium content of various steel samples. As part of this study, he was required to study the microstructure of the various steel alloy samples and to do this, he had to polish and etch the samples first. The standard way to do this was to use a weak solution of nitric acid and alcohol to do the etching, but as Mr. Brearley found, some of the samples were exceptionally resistant to these chemicals. After a bit of investigation, he determined that the high chromium content of these samples was responsible for the exceptional resistance to acid. From this research, a whole new industry of manufacturing stainless steels sprung up around the Sheffield area.

Like chrome-moly steels, there are also different grades of stainless steels and only some grades are used in the manufacture of firearms. For instance, SAE grades 410 and 416 are used for firearms barrels. They are both steel alloys with high chromium content (11.5 - 13.5% for 410 stainless steel and 12-14% for 416 stainless steel). The main difference is that 416 stainless steel contains a bit more sulfur in it, which makes it easier to machine than 410 stainless steel, which makes the barrels cheaper to produce. However, 410 stainless steel retains its toughness better and performs better in freezing conditions. Some companies make custom alloys, such as Crucible Specialty Metals' 416R, which is specially designed for precision steel barrels. Another stainless steel alloy used by some makers is 17-4 PH (PH standing for Precipitation Hardening).

Some of the other parts of the guns are also made of 400 or 300 series of stainless steels. The 300 series is more resistant to corrosion than the 400 series of steels, but cannot be hardened as easily, so it is used for parts that aren't exposed to huge forces.

The advantage of stainless steel alloys over chrome-moly steel alloys is that they are easier to machine and resist heat erosion better. However, they are a bit more expensive and cannot be blued using conventional methods. The US military prefers chrome-moly barrels, but most competitive target shooters prefer stainless steel barrels, because they can be machined more precisely and keep their accuracy longer. This is why the majority of match-grade barrels are made of stainless steel.

Vega in recent years

Vega rose to prominence in popular culture in the late 1990s after Carl Sagan's novel "Contact" (1985, Simon & Schuster) was adapted into a Hollywood movie. Starring Jodie Foster, the movie followed an astronomer working on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) who discovers a signal appearing to emanate from Vega.

Telescopic observations in 2006 revealed that Vega is whipping around so quickly that its poles are several thousand degrees warmer than its equator. The star, which rotates every 12.5 hours, is at 90 percent of its critical rotation speed, or the velocity at which the object would tear itself apart.

In early 2013, astronomers announced that they had discovered an asteroid belt surrounding Vega, suggesting the possibility of planets within the rocks' midst. The layout (which resembled that found near the star Fomalhaut) suggests that there are two areas: an outer region with icy asteroids and a region closer to the star, where warmer space rocks reside.

Scientists are examining bright stars like Vega more closely using NASA's TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite) mission, which launched in 2018 to conduct an all-sky survey. While the primary mission of TESS is to search for exoplanets, the satellite will also search for signs of star variability. TESS's examination of Vega and similar stars will help scientists learn more about the early stages of star evolution.

World War II in Alaska

American and Canadian soldiers made an amphibious landing on the island of Kiska, August 16, 1943. Shown are the Infantrymen of the 13th Canadian Infantry Brigade Group disembarking from a landing craft during operation COTTAGE, the invasion of Kiska.

Library and Archives Canada, accession number 1967-052 NPC, item Z-1995-31

This resource guide is designed to aid students and teachers in researching Alaska’s World War II history. Alaska’s role as battlefield, lend-lease transfer station, and North Pacific stronghold was often overlooked by historians in the post-war decades, but in recent years awareness has been growing of Alaska’s wartime past. This renewed interest generates exciting educational opportunities for students and teachers researching this chapter in the history of our state. Few people know that the only World War II battle fought on U.S. soil took place in Alaska or that Japanese forces occupied two Aleutian Islands for more than a year. Still fewer know of the Russian pilots who trained in Fairbanks, the workers who risked their lives building the Alaska Highway, or the Alaska Scouts who patrolled the Bering Sea coast. The lives of Alaskans were forever changed by the experience of war, and the history of that dramatic era is still being written.

A map of important World War II sites, followed by a summary of Alaska’s World War II experience is included. Information about National Historic Landmarks and Monuments related to World War II in Alaska is also included. The selected bibliography that follows is divided into twelve parts to aid student researchers in selecting topics:

  • War Comes to Alaska
  • Aleutian Campaign
  • Alaska Highway and Canol Pipeline
  • Wartime Construction
  • Native Defenders
  • Warplanes and Seacraft
  • Aleut Evacuation
  • Canadian Participation
  • Japanese-American Internment
  • Lend-Lease Program
  • Japanese Naval Power
  • Branches and Units

This bibliography includes books, journals, and videotapes that can be found in Alaska’s libraries or obtained through interlibrary loan. The articles cited were selected for their relevance to a specific theme and can be found (with some exceptions) in Alaskan periodicals. The bibliography is not meant to be comprehensive, but is instead intended as a gateway to further research.

Information regarding Alaska’s libraries and museums follows, with descriptions of collections relevant to Alaska’s World War II history and a list of on-line resources. The individual museums and libraries are organized by city. The resource guide concludes with an introduction to the National History Day program and History Day in Alaska.

Alaska World War II Military Sites

Explore World War II's northern Pacific campaign through sites across Alaska

Summary of World War II in Alaska

Buildings burn following the Japanese attack on the fort at Dutch Harbor, June 3, 1942. A second, more damaging attack came the next day, though the P-40 Aleutian Tigers scrambled to intercept the enemy from a secret base (Fort Glenn) on Umnak Island.

Archives and Manuscripts Department, University of Alaska Anchorage

Japanese Aggression in China
In 1931, Japan launched attacks in eastern China in an effort to seize control of China’s eastern province, Manchuria. U.S. suspicion and mistrust of Japan intensified when Japanese military forces attacked a U.S. oil tanker convoy and the USS Panay, a U.S. Naval gunboat escorting the convoy, on the Yangtze River in 1937. Three people were killed in the attack and 11 seriously injured when Japanese planes fired on life boats and survivors on shore.

U.S. Northern Defense
With increasing hostilities in China the U.S. Government became concerned about the possibility of attack from across the Pacific. In 1935, Brigadier General William Mitchell urged Congress to adopt a strong northern air defense, declaring, “I believe in the future he who holds Alaska will hold the world.” In 1939 Congress established a Panama-Hawaii-Alaska defense triangle to protect America’s vulnerable western coast. Alaska, the largest and least fortified of the three, soon saw the construction of naval bases at Sitka, Dutch Harbor, and Kodiak.

War Comes to Alaska
Six months after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese bombed the U.S. Dutch Harbor Naval Operating Base and U.S. Army Fort Mears, near Unalaska Island and occupied the Aleutian islands of Attu and Kiska. For many decades following the War, the prevailing understanding about the Japanese Aleutian operation was that it served as a mere diversionary measure from their Midway operation. Recent research, however, concludes that the Japanese had a broader and longer term strategy to establish and expand an eastern defensive perimeter. In response, U.S. military strategists knew that they could not risk leaving the Aleutians open as stepping stones for Japanese attacks on the United States mainland. In addition, the occupation was a significant propaganda victory for the Japanese—the affront could not go unanswered.

Aleutian Campaign
Because planes departing from Kodiak and Dutch Harbor did not have the nearly 1,400 mile range to engage the Japanese at Attu and Kiska, U.S. forces built bases on other Aleutian islands as refueling and maintenance stops, allowing them to strike further west. Pilots and ground troops soon realized they were facing a second enemy, Mother Nature. Weather along the Aleutian chain is some of the worst in the world, with dense fogs, violent seas, and fierce wind storms called williwaws. Aircraft lacking accurate navigational devices or consistent radio contact crashed into mountains, each other, the sea—simply finding the enemy was a life-and-death struggle. For soldiers in the Aleutians, contact with the enemy was infrequent and fleeting, but the weather was a perpetual adversary.

Native Defenders
When the Alaska National Guard was called to active duty in September 1941, Governor Gruening received permission to reorganize and establish the Alaska Territorial Guard. Many Alaska Natives joined units of the Alaska Territorial Guard to patrol Alaska’s coasts and lead reconnaissance missions in combat zones.

Aleut Evacuation
Forty-two Aleuts living on the island of Attu and two Navy weather observers on Kiska were taken prisoner by the Japanese and sent to Japan where 17 died. In June and July 1942, the U.S. military evacuated 881 Aleuts from nine villages located on several islands including the Pribilofs and Unalaska. They were taken by a military transport ship in cramped conditions to abandoned canneries and mining camps in Southeast Alaska. Nearly a hundred died in the horrible conditions of these camps. During their absence, the U.S. military burned many of their homes to keep the Japanese from using them, and removed religious icons from their churches.

Japanese Internment
Under an emergency measure in effect in the western United States, Alaskans of Japanese descent were shipped to internment camps in the Lower 48. The fear of sudden attack also led to censorship of the media, food rationing, and obligatory blackouts in coastal areas.

Lend-Lease Program
The Lend-Lease Act was passed in 1941 as a means of providing military aide to allies. As part of the Lend-Lease program over 8,000 U.S. aircraft were transferred to Russia via the Alaska-Siberia (ALSIB) route beginning in 1942. The ALSIB route consisted of a string of new airfields constructed in Alaska and Canada that allowed American pilots to leapfrog through the Canadian and Alaskan wilderness to Ladd Field in Fairbanks. At Ladd Field Russian pilots were waiting to fly the planes across the Bering Sea and Siberia to Russia’s Western Front with Germany.

Wartime Construction
Wartime construction brought major changes in transportation and communication with the outside world and within Alaska. Until 1942 passengers and freight arrived in Alaska two ways—by boat or plane. One of the biggest feats of the war time construction program was the construction of the Alaska Canada Military Highway, a 1,420-mile wilderness highway which was completed in less than nine months. Other construction included telephone lines, oil pipelines, railways, and roughly 300 military installations throughout Alaska.

Population Boom
As a result of the War thousands of men and women moved to the sparsely populated territory, and many stayed. In 1940, just over 72,000 people called Alaska home. By 1950, the population nearly doubled to 129,000. Anchorage saw its population balloon from 3,000 to 47,000, while Fairbanks grew from 4,000 to nearly 20,000. While many military bases closed after the War some stayed open and even grew. The military population, which was about 500 in 1940 increased to about 22,000 in 1950.

Alaska’s War Ends
On May 11, 1943 U.S. forces landed on Attu and began an uphill battle to retake the island. After nineteen days of fighting, the beleaguered Japanese soldiers launched a final banzai charge in an attempt to break through the American line. When the battle ended, only 29 prisoners remained of a Japanese force of roughly 2,600. Three months later the drama at Attu was matched by an equally dramatic anticlimax. Foul weather had delayed Allied attempts to retake Kiska, and when U.S. and Canadian forces finally landed on August 15, they were stunned to find that the Japanese were gone—having evacuated under cover of fog three weeks before. As the guns fell silent in the Aleutians, many Army and Navy facilities were closed, though fighting in the Pacific and in Europe continued for another two years.

National Landmarks
The Secretary of the Interior, through the National Park Service, took steps to recognize the importance of Alaska’s role in World War II history by designating eight sites as National Historic Landmarks. These sites include former Army and Navy bases, Aleutian battlefields, airfields, and an area on Kiska Island once occupied by the Japanese. National Historic Landmark status recognizes these places as being among the nation’s most treasured resources deemed worthy of preservation.

Alaska’s World War II National Historic Landmarks

Ulakta Head and Command Center, a feature within the Dutch Harbor NHL and the Aleutian World War II National Historic Area.

National Park Service, Alaska Regional Office

The Secretary of the Interior, through the National Park Service, designated the following NHL sites to commemorate the significant events and human drama of Alaska’s role in World War II:

Part of the National Park Service’s role is to administer the NHL program. Available materials include a booklet entitled “WWII National Historic Landmarks: The Aleutian Campaign” and two lesson plans from the Teaching with Historic Places series entitled “Attu: North American Battleground of World War II” and “Ladd Field and the Lend-Lease Mission: Defending Alaska in WWII.” The NHL program implemented an American Battlefield Protection Program grant which culminated in “The Cultural Landscape of the World War II Battlefield of Kiska, Aleutian Islands” 2012 report. For copies of these materials please visit the National Park Service, Alaska Regional Office’s National Historic Landmarks web page at:

Aleutian World War II National Historic Area

Aleut villagers faced an uncertain future both when they left for and returned from camps in southeast Alaska. During the Aleutian Campaign, 881 Aleuts were evacuated from their homes and spent almost three years in makeshift “duration villages” without proper sanitation, heat, or medical attention.

Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association Inc.

Though visiting a real historic place is one of the best ways to gain valuable insights, several of Alaska’s WWII sites are difficult to access. One resource for learning more about events in the Aleutians during this period is through the Aleutian WWII National Historic Area (NHA). Designated by Congress in 1996, the NHA is owned by the Ounalashka Corporation with historic preservation technical assistance provided by the National Park Service-Alaska Regional Office. The NHA includes the historic footprint of Fort Schwatka, along with a Visitors Center located in the former WWII Aerology Building, at the Unalaska Airport on Amaknak Island. The purpose of the NHA includes educating the public about the history of the Aleut people, and the role of the Aleut people and the Aleutian Islands in the defense of the U.S. in World War II. More information can be found at the following NPS website: http://www.nps. gov/aleu/index.htm

World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument

Attu, Aleutian Islands. Landing boats pouring soldiers and their equipment onto the beach at Massacre Bay. This is the Southern landing force.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C.

In December 2008, President George H. Bush established, by Executive Order, the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument. The new monument was established to commemorate this “pivitol period in our Nation’s history” and elevated nine historic sites in Hawaii, California, and Alaska to monument status. The Alaska unit includes historic areas on Attu and Kiska, and the Atka Island crash site of a Consolidated B-24D Liberator bomber. All of the Alaska sites are on lands managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument interprets the stories of the Pacific War including events at Pearl Harbor, the internment of Japanese Americans, and the Aleutian Campaign. The National Park Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service jointly developed a Foundation Statement for the Alaska Unit of the Monument. The document provides a vision for future decision making and the development of management and implementation plans that will define the Alaska Unit’s operations, resource protection, and visitor experience. Similar foundation documents are being produced for the Hawaii and California units. Combined, these documents will set the stage for future planning and development of the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument. The document can be viewed and downloaded by visiting

Selected Bibliography

Black engineers build a trestle bridge during the construction of the Alaska Canada Military Highway. Black G.I.s made up roughly forty percent of the estimated 11,500 Army troops who in just nine months completed a wilderness highway linking Alaska with the contiguous United States.

Anchorage Museum of History and Art

War Comes to Alaska

Alaska at War. Aurora Films. [videorecording]. 60 min. Produced by Laurence Goldin. Written by Bradford Matsen and Laurence Goldin. Anchorage: Alaska Video Publishing for Alaska Historical Commission, 1987, 1993, 2005.

Alaska Geographic. Fairbanks, vol. 22, no. 1. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1991.

Alaska Geographic. World War II in Alaska, vol. 22, no. 4. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1995.

Antonson, Joan M. and William S. Hanable. Alaska’s Heritage. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History, no. 133. Anchorage: Alaska Historical Society, 1985.

Chandonnet, Fern, ed. Alaska at War, 1941-1945: The Forgotten War Remembered. Papers from the Alaska at War Symposium, Anchorage, Alaska, November 11-13, 1993. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Cohen, Stan. The Forgotten War: A Pictorial History of World War II in Alaska and Northwestern Canada. [4 vol.]. Altona, Manitoba: D.W. Friesen and Sons, 1981.

Drawing the Lines of Battle: Military Art of World War II Alaska. Anchorage: Anchorage Museum of History and Art, 1989.

Garfield, Brian. The Thousand-Mile War: World War II in Alaska and the Aleutians. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1995.

“German Prisoners of War in Alaska: The POW Camp at Excursion Inlet.” Alaska Journal 14 (1984): 16-20.

Hays, Otis E., Jr. “The Silent Years in Alaska: The Military Blackout during World War II.” Alaska Journal 16 (1986): 140-147.

Lawler, Pat. “Buckner and his Boys Invade Alaska – Taking the Territory by Storm.” Alaska Journal 2 (1981): 84-99.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, vol. 7, Aleutians, Gilberts and Marshalls, June 1942-April 1944. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1951.

Naske, Claus-M. and Herman Slotnik. Alaska: A History of the 49th State. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.

Aleutian Campaign

Alaska Geographic. The Aleutians, vol. 7, no. 3. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1980.

Alaska Geographic. Kodiak, vol. 19, no. 3. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1992.

Alaska Geographic. Kodiak, Island of Change, vol. 4, no. 3. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1977.

Alaska Geographic. Unalaska/Dutch Harbor, vol. 18, no. 4. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1991.

Alaska Geographic. World War II in Alaska, vol. 22, no. 4. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1995.

Aleutian Invasion: World War Two in the Aleutian Islands. Prepared by the students of Unalaska High School. Unalaska: Unalaska High School, 1981.

The Aleutians Campaign, June 1942-August 1943. Washington: Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, 1993.

They Bloody Aleutians. [videorecording]. 50 min. New York: A&E Television Network, 2001.

The Capture of Attu: Tales of World War II in Alaska, as Told by the Men who Fought There. Edmonds, Alberta: Alaska Northwest Publishing, 1984.

Denfeld, Colt D. The Defense of Dutch Harbor, Alaska from Military Construction to Base Cleanup. Anchorage: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1987.

Ellis, Dan. “Springfield Rifles and Forgotten Men.” Alaska Journal 10 (Autumn 1980): 54-59.

Lorell, John A. The Battle of the Komandorski Islands. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1984.

Morgan, Lael. “An Artist’s War in the Aleutians.” Alaska Journal 10 (Summer 1980): 34-39.

Murray, Robert Haynes. The Only Way Home. Waycross: Brantley Printing Company, 1986.

Rearden, Jim. “Kiska: One Island’s Moment in History.” Alaska (September 1986): 18-21, 49-51.

Rearden, Jim. Forgotten Warriors of the Aleutian Campaign. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., 2005.

Red, White, Black & Blue. [videorecording]. 86 min. Directed by Tom Putnam. Produced by Tom Putnam, Jeff Malmberg, Matt Redecki, and Michael Harbour. Arlington: PBS Home Video, 2007.

Report from the Aleutians. [videorecording]. 47 min. Directed by John Huston. Army Pictorial Service. Burbank: Viking Video Classics, 1986.

Report from the Aleutians: Hook Down, Wheels Down. [videorecording]. 117 min. U.S. Army Signal Corps, 2001.

Rourke, Norman E. War Comes to Alaska: The Dutch Harbor Attack, June 3-4, 1942. Shippenburg: Burd Street Press, 1997.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. The Cultural Landscape of the World War II Battlefield of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. Anchorage: U.S. National Park Service, 2011.

Spennemann, Clemens, and Kozlowski. “Scars on the Tundra: The Cultural Landscape of the Kiska Battlefield, Aleutians”. Alaska Park Science. Anchorage: National Park Service. (June 2011). Online: ak_park_science/PDF/2011Vol10-1/APS_Vol10- 1_0-48-complete-issue.pdf

Seiple, Samantha. Ghosts in the Fog: The Untold Story of Alaska’s WWII Invasion. New York: Scholastic Reference, 2011.

Webber, Bert. Aleutian Headache: Deadly World War II Battles on American Soil. Medford: Webb Research, 1993.

Alaska Highway and Canol Pipeline

The Alaska Highway, 1942-1992. [videorecording]. 58 min. Written and produced by Tom Morgan for Alaska Public Television, KAKM TV. Anchorage: Alaska Public Television, 1992.

Brebner, Phyllis Lee. The Alaska Highway: A Personal and Historical Account of the Building of the Alaska Highway. Erin, Ontario: Boston Mills Press, 1985.

Coates, Kenneth. The Alaska Highway: Papers of the 40th Anniversary Symposium. Vancouver, B.C.: University of British Columbia Press, 1985.

Coates, Kenneth. The Alaska Highway in World War II: The U.S. Army of Occupation in Canada’s Northwest. Tulsa: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.

Coates, Kenneth. North to Alaska! Fifty Years on the World’s Most Remarkable Highway. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1991.

Coates, Kenneth and Judith Powell. “Whitehorse and the Building of the Alaska Highway, 1942-1946.” Alaska History 4 (Spring 1989): 1-26.

Cohen, Stan. ALCAN and CANOL: A Pictorial History of Two Great World War II Construction Projects. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing, 1992.

Duesenberg, H. Milton. Alaska Highway Expeditionary Force: A Roadbuilder’s Story. Clear Lake: H&M Industries, 1994.

Gage, S.R. A Walk on the Canol Road: Exploring the First Major Northern Pipeline. Oakville, Ontario: Mosaic Press, 1990.

Griggs, William E. The World War II Black Regiment that Built the Alaska Military Highway: A Photographic History. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2002.

Hesketh, Bob, ed. Three Northern Wartime Projects: Alaska Highway, Northwest Staging Route, and Canol. Occasional Publication Series, no. 38. Edmonton, Alberta: Published jointly by Canadian Circumpolar Institute and Edmonton & District Historical Society, 1996.

Hollinger, Kristy. The Haines-Fairbanks Pipeline. Fort Colins, CO: CEMML, Colorado State University, 2003.

Karamanski, Theodore J. “The Canol Project: A Poorly Planned Pipeline.” Alaska Journal 9 (Autumn 1979): 17-22.

Krakauer, Jon. “Ice, Mosquitoes and Muskeg – Building the Road to Alaska.” Smithsonian (July 1992): 102-112.

Morgan, Lael. “Forgotten Pioneers.” Alaska (February 1992): 33-34.

Morgan, Lael. “Writing Minorities Out of History: Black Builders of the Alcan Highway.” Alaska History 7 (Fall 1992): 1-13.

Naske, Claus-M.. Paving Alaska’s Trails: The Work of the Alaska Road Commission. New York: University Press of America, 1986.

Rimley, David. Crooked Road: The Story of the Alaska Highway. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1976.

Twichell, Heath. Northwest Epic: The Building of the Alaska Highway. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.

Wartime Construction

The Army’s Role in the Building of Alaska. Pamphlet 360-5. United States Army, 1969.

Building the Navy’s Bases in World War II: History of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and the Civil Engineering Corps, 1940-1946. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947.

Bush, James D., Jr. Narrative Report of Alaska Construction, 1941-1944. Anchorage: Alaska Defense Command, 1943.

Cook, Linda. Elmendorf Air Force Base, vol. 1, Historic Context of World War II Buildings and Structures. Anchorage: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1999.

Decker, Julie and Chris Chiei. Quonset Hut: Metal Living for a Modern Age. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2005.

Dod, Karl C. The Corps of Engineers: The War Against Japan. Washington D.C.: Center of Military History, 1987.

Fowle, Barry, ed. Builders and Fighters: U.S. Army Engineers in World War II. Fort Belvoire: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1992.

Hesketh, Bob, ed. Three Northern Wartime Projects: Alaska Highway, Northwest Staging Route, and Canol. Occasional Publication Series, no. 38. Edmonton, Alberta: Published jointly by Canadian Circumpolar Institute and Edmonton & District Historical Society, 1996.

Native Defenders

Delkettie, Buck. “An Alaskan Scout Remembers.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Hendricks, Charles. “The Eskimos and the Defense of Alaska.” Pacific Historical Review 1 (1985): 271-295.

Hudson, Ray. “Aleuts in Defense of the Homeland.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Marston, Marvin R. Men of the Tundra: Alaska Eskimos at War. New York: October House, 1969.

Morgan, Lael. “Minority Troops and the Alaskan Advantage during World War II.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Rearden, Jim. Castner’s Cutthroats: Saga of the Alaska Scouts. [novel]. Prescott: Wolfe Publishing, 1990.

Salisbury, C.A. Soldiers of the Mists: Minutemen of the Alaska Frontier. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing, 1992.

Wooley, Chris and Mike Martz. “The Tundra Army: Patriots of Arctic Alaska.” In Alaska at War, 1941- 1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Warplanes and Seacraft

Amme, Carl H., ed. Aleutian Airdales: Stories of Navy Fliers in the North Pacific of WWII. Plains: Plainsman Publishing, 1987.

Blair, Clay. Silent Victory: The U.S. Submarine War Against Japan. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1975.

Freeman, Elmer. Those Navy Guys and their PBYs: The Aleutian Solution. Spokane: Kedging Publishing, 1992.

Carrigan, Paul E. The Flying Fighting Weathermen of Patrol Wing Four, 1941-1945, U.S. Navy: Kodiak, Dutch Harbor, Umnak, Cold Bay, Adak, Amchitka, Kiska, Shemya, Attu, and The Empire Express to Paramushiro: Memoirs of Paul E. Carrigan. Forked River: Regal-Lith Printers, 2002.

Dickrell, Jeff. Center of the Storm: The Bombing of Dutch Harbor and the Experience of Patrol Wing Four in the Aleutians, Summer 1942. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., Inc., 2002.

Mills, Stephen E. Arctic War Planes: Alaska Aviation of World War II: A Pictorial History of Bush Flying with the Military in the Defense of Alaska and America. New York: Bonanza Books, 1978.

Rearden, Jim. Koga’s Zero: The Fighter that Changed World War II. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing, 1995.

Rearden, Jim. Cracking the Zero Mystery: How the U.S. Learned to Beat Japan’s Vaunted World War II Fighter Plane. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books, 1990.

Stevens, Peter F. Fatal Dive: Solving the World War II Mystery of the USS Grunion. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 2012.

Aleut Evacuation

Aleut Story. [DVD]. 90 minutes. A Sprocketheads Production. Lincoln, NE: Aleutian-Pribilof Heritage, Inc., 2005.

Aleut Evacuation: The Untold Story. [videorecording]. 60 min. Directed by Michael and Mary Jo Thill. Girdwood: Gaff Rigged Productions for the Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, 1992.

Breu, Mary. Last Letters from Attu: The True Story of Etta Jones, Alaska Pioneer and Japanese POW. Anchorage: Alaska Northwest Books, 2009.

Golodoff, Nick. Attu Boy. Anchorage: U.S. National Park Service, 2012.

Kirkland, John C. The Relocation and Internment of the Aleuts during World War II. 8 vol. Anchorage: Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, 1981.

Kohlhoff, Dean. “’It Only Makes My Heart Want to Cry’: How Aleuts Faced the Pain of Evacuation.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Kohlhoff, Dean. When the Wind was a River: Aleut Evacuation in World War II. Seattle: University of Washington Press in association with Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, 1995.

Mobley, Charles M. World War II Aleut Relocation Camps in Southeast Alaska. Anchorage: U.S. National Park Service, 2012.

Smith, Barbara Sweetland. Making it Right: Restitution for Churches Damaged and Lost during the Aleut Relocation in World War II. Anchorage: Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, 1993.

Canadian Participation

Adleman, R.H. and G. Walton. The Devil’s Brigade. Philadelphia: Chilton Books, 1966.

Bezeau, M.V. “Strategic Cooperation: The Canadian Commitment to the Defense of Alaska in the Second World War.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Coyle, Brendan. War On Our Doorstep: The Unknown Campaign on North America’s West Coast. Surrey, B.C.: Heritage House, 2002.

Dziuban, Stanley W. Military Relations between the United States and Canada, 1939-1945. United States Army in World War II, Special Studies. Washington: Department of the Army, 1959.

Neely, Alastair. “The First Special Service Force and Canadian Involvement at Kiska.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Perras, Galen R. “Canada’s Greenlight Force and the Invasion of Kiska, 1943.” In Alaska at War, 1941- 1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Japanese-American Internment

Daniels, Roger, et al., ed. Japanese Americans from Relocation to Redress. Revised Edition. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986.

Inouye, Ronald K. “For Immediate Sale: Tokyo Bathhouse – How World War II Affected Alaska’s Japanese Civilians.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Inouye, Ronald K. “Harry Sotaro Kawabe: Issei Businessman of Seward and Seattle.” Alaska History 5 (Spring 1990): 34-43.

Kobayashi, Sylvia K. “I Remember What I Want to Forget.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Naske, Claus-M. “The Relocation of Alaska’s Japanese Residents.” Pacific Northwest Quarterly 74 (July 1983): 124-132.

Lend-Lease Program

Brandon, Dean R. “War Planes to Russia.” Alaska (May 1976): 14-17.

Denfeld, Colt D. Cold Bay in World War II: Fort Randall and Russian Naval Lend-lease. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Alaska District, 1988.

Guide to the Ladd Field National Historic Landmark and Ladd Air Force Base Cold War Historic District. Fairbanks, AK: U.S. Army Garrison Fort Wainwright, 2011. 13

Hays, Otis E., Jr. The Alaska-Siberia Connection: The World War II Air Route. Texas A&M University Military History Series, 48. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1996.

Hays, Otis E., Jr. “White Star, Red Star.” Alaska Journal 12 (1982): 9-17.

Lake, Gretchen. “Photo Essay: The Russians are Coming, the Russians are Coming, Fifty Years Ago, the Russians were Coming.” Alaska History 8 (Spring 1993): 33-41.

Long, Everett A. and Ivan Y. Neganblya. Cobras Over the Tundra. Fairbanks: Arktika Publishing, 1992.

Moor, Jay H. World War II in Alaska: The Northwest Route: A Bibliography and Guide to Primary Sources. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History, no. 175. Anchorage: Alaska Historical Commission, 1985.

Price, Kathy. The World War II Heritage of Ladd Field, Fairbank, Alaska. Fort Colins, CO: CEMML, Colorado State University, 2004.

Smith, Blake W. Warplanes to Alaska: The Story of a WWII Military Supply Lifeline to Alaska and Russia through the Canadian Wilderness. Surrey, B.C.: Hancock House, 1998.

Japanese Naval Power

Agawa, Hiroyuki. The Reluctant Admiral: Yamamoto and the Imperial Navy. New York: Kodansha International, 1979.

Dull, Paul S. A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941-1945. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1978.

Francillon, Rene J. Japanese Navy Bombers of World War Two. Garden City: Doubleday, 1971.

Fuchida, Mitsuo and Okumiya Masatake. Midway: The Battle that Doomed Japan. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1955.

The Japanese Navy in World War II. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 1969.

Lorelli, John A. The Battle of the Komandorski Islands. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1984.

Marder, Arthur Jacob. Old Friends, New Enemies: The Royal Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy: Strategic Illusions, 1936-1941. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Parshall, Jonathan and Anthony Tully. Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Dulles: Potomac Books, Inc., 2007.

Takahashi, Hisashi. “The Japanese Campaign in Alaska as Seen from a Strategic Perspective.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Watts, Anthony J. Japanese Warships of World War II. Garden City: Doubleday, 1967.

Branches and Units

Amme, Carl H., ed. Aleutian Airdales: Stories of Navy Fliers in the North Pacific of WWII. Plains: Plainsman Publishing, 1987.

Benedict, Bradley H. Ski Troops in the Mud, Kiska Island Recaptured: A Saga of the North Pacific Campaign in the Aleutian Islands in World War II with Special Emphasis on its Culmination Led by the Forerunners of the 10th Mountain Division. Littleton: H.B.&J.C. Benedict, 1990.

Cloe, John Haile. The Aleutian Warriors: A History of the 11th Air Force & Fleet Air Wing 4. Missoula: Anchorage Chapter – Air Force Association and Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1990.

Cloe, John Haile and Michael F. Monaghan. Top Cover for America: The Air Force in Alaska, 1920- 1983. Missoula: Anchorage Chapter – Air Force Association and Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1984.

Goldstein, Donald M. The Williwaw War: The Arkansas National Guard in the Aleutians in World War II. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1992.

Johnson, Robert Erwin. Bering Sea Escort: Life Aboard a Coast Guard Cutter in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1992.

Leahy, Joseph M. “The Coast Guard at War in Alaska.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Montgomery Watson, prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, The Kodiak Coastal Defense System at Fort Greely during World War II, Anchorage, Alaska, 1999 (?).

Woodman, Lyman. Duty Station Northwest: The U.S. Army in Alaska and Western Canada, 1867-1987. Vol. 2. Anchorage: Alaska Historical Society, 1997.

Museums and Libraries

“Headquarters, camouflage Umnak” by Ogden Pleissner.

Anchorage Museum of History and Art

Alaska Aviation Museum
4721 Aircraft Drive
Anchorage,AK 99502
Phone: (907) 248-5325

The Alaska Aviation Museum displays a wide variety of Japanese and American WWII memorabilia from the Aleutian Campaign. The collection also includes a Catalina PBY and the wreck of a P-40 Warhawk fighter, both used in the Aleutian Campaign.

Alaska Veterans Museum
333 W. 4th Avenue, Suite 227 Anchorage, AK 99501
Phone: 907-677-8802

Stories of Alaska’s servicemen and women are available through oral histories, documentaries, artifacts, military uniforms, weapons, photos, and models, including a 1/72 scale model of the USS Essex , complete with fighter planes.

The Anchorage Museum
625 C Street
Anchorage, AK 99501
Phone: (907) 929-9200
E-mail: [email protected]

The Alaska Gallery of the Anchorage Museum of History and Art is home to three displays portraying WWII Alaska. These include the uniform and rifle of an Alaska Scout and details about the Alaskan Territorial Guard a diorama of aircraft used during the Aleutian Campaign and a vision of life inside a Quonset hut.

Consortium Library
University of Alaska Anchorage
3211 Providence Drive Anchorage,AK 99508
Phone: (907) 786-1848

Consortium Library contains an impressive collection of books relating to Alaska’s WWII history. Its Archives and Manuscripts Department frequently exhibits material drawn from extensive collections of photographs, personal records, and government documents relating to Alaska’s war experiences.

National Archives and Records Administration Pacific Alaska Region
654 West Third Avenue
Anchorage,AK 99501-2145
Phone: (907) 261-7820
E-mail: [email protected]

The National Archives contain vast collections of U.S. government records and material entrusted to the National Archives by various agencies. All aspects of Alaska’s WWII experience are represented in military records, municipal records, census information, and historical photographs.

Z.J. Loussac Library
Anchorage Municipal Libraries
3600 Denali Street
Anchorage, AK 99503-6093
Phone: (907) 343-2975

The Loussac Library’s Alaska collection contains
the majority of the books and articles cited in this bibliography, and is also home to a microfiche collection of Alaska’s newspapers. It is one of the best places to find material on Alaska during WWII, either in person or by interlibrary loan.

Pioneer Air Museum
Interior and Arctic Alaska Aeronautical Foundation Location: Alaskaland Park
2300 Airport Way
Fairbanks,Alaska 99701
Phone: (907) 451-0037
E-mail: [email protected]

The Pioneer Air Museum has on display photographs, Russian uniforms, and other memorabilia related to the Lend-Lease Program, which ferried aircraft to the Soviet front via Alaska. The Museum is also home to a single- engine Norseman plane used during the War for cargo delivery and search-and-rescue missions.

Elmer E. Rasmuson Library
University of Alaska Fairbanks 310 Tanana Loop
Fairbanks, AK 99775-6800 Phone: (907) 474-7481

Rasmuson Library includes an extensive Alaska collection containing many of the works cited in this bibliography. It is also home to the archives of the Alaska & Polar Regions Department, one of Alaska’s richest sources of historical materials related to WWII.

Alaska State Library
Location: 8 th floor, State Office Building Juneau, AK 99811-0571
Phone: (907) 465-2920

The Alaska State Library is an excellent place to begin searching for books and articles about WWII Alaska. In addition, the library’s historical collection contains one- of-a-kind material and rare books on the same theme.

Baranov Museum/Kodiak Historical Society
101 Marine Way
Kodiak, AK 99615
Phone: (907) 486-5920
Fax: (907) 486-3166

The Baranov Museum houses both historical photographs and memoirs relating to the Aleutian Campaign and the role of the Kodiak Naval Operating Base in particular.

Sitka Historical Society and Museum
330 Harbor Drive
Sitka, AK 99835
Phone: (907) 747-6455
E-mail: [email protected]

The Sitka Historical Society and Museum holds WWII collections consisting of three-dimensional objects such as uniforms, medals, and military equipment, as well as an extensive photograph collection.

Museum of the Aleutians
314 Salmon Way
P.O. Box 648
Unalaska, AK 99685-0648
Phone: (907) 581-5150
E-mail: [email protected]

The Museum of the Aleutians collection includes weapons, historical photographs, uniforms, diaries, flightlogs, and Japanese flags from the Aleutian Campaign.

Online Resources

“Among the Japanese placed guns on Kiska Island was this 125-mm (6-inch) pre-World War I British naval gun used by the Japanese to guard the entrance to Kiska Harbor.” Photo taken by NAS Adak, 7 September 1943.

NARA, Record Group 80-G-80384

Alaska Digital Archives -
This site presents a wealth of historical photographs, albums, oral histories, moving images, maps, documents, physical objects, and other materials from libraries, museums and archives throughout Alaska. This site has a large variety of digitized photos, interviews, documents, and films from World War II.

Alaska Library Web Pages -
This site offers a list of links to library web pages throughout the state and to SLED, which provides access to library catalogs and related resources. Alaska Library Web Pages is maintained by the Alaska Library Association.

Alaska Library Directory -
This site provides a list of basic user information for every library in Alaska. The site is maintained by the Alaska State Library.

Museums and Historical Societies in Alaska -
Here you will find a complete list of Alaska’s museums and historical societies, each with user information and a description of facilities. The site is maintained by Alaska State Museums.

Statewide Library Electronic Doorway (SLED) -
SLED offers access to library catalogs and other resources of interest to Alaskans under the slogan “information resources for, about and by Alaskans.”

Internet Sites

Sitka Naval Operating Base, Easter Service, 1943.

Sitka Historical Society and Museum

The following sites contain information about WWII in Alaska. An Internet search under “World War II” will yield many others which examine the war as a global phenomenon or focus on specific events during the war years.

Aleutians Campaign, June 1942-August 1943: United States Navy Combat Narrative
During WWII the U.S. Naval Historical Center began producing combat narratives of specific naval campaigns. This once- restricted document is offered by the NHC not as an official history but as a view through the eyes of the Navy in 1943.

The Aleutians Home Page
This website began as a site to promote the sharing of anecdotes, photos, and links related to the post-World War II Shemya. Its content quickly grew to include experiences of World War II veterans of Shemya and other Aleutian Islands.

Aleutian Islands: The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II
This site contains a detailed U.S. Army article on the Aleutian Campaign. Included also are maps, illustrations, and a list of suggested reading.

Aleutian World War II National Historic Area
This is the National Park Service website for the Aleutian World War II National Historic Area. It provides information on the Aleutian Campaign, Aleut Evacuation, interviews with veterans, and other information of interest to the general public, teachers, and students.

Forgotten Decades, WWII Alaskans Finally Get Their Due
This is a National Public Radio segment on Marvin “Muktuk” Marston and the more than 6,300 Alaska Natives that volunteered for the Alaska Territorial Guard during World War II.

Kodiak Alaska Military History Museum
This site includes a variety of documents relating to WWII in Kodiak, with both historic and more current day images. The Museum is housed in an historic Ammunition bunker at Miller Point, the former Fort Abercrombie, which today is a State Park in Kodiak.

LitSite Alaska
LitSite Alaska, showcases a living archive of lesson plans used in Alaskan classrooms and an extensive collection of excellent peer work by Alaskan students. It is a production of the University of Alaska Anchorage and has a number of sources discussing World War II in Alaska.

National Museum of the Air Force
This site is maintained by the National Museum of the Air Force on Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio. It offers a series of short narratives concerning all aspects of the War in the Pacific, including the Aleutian Campaign.

Photos from the Aleutian Campaign
This site includes an impressive collection of WWII photographs taken in Adak and other Aleutian sites. The photos belonged to Dr. Will R. Eubank, an aviation medical examiner in the Army Air Corps. Together they help to tell the story of Eubank’s twelve month tour during the Aleutian Campaign.

Sitka’s WWII Site
This site, designed by a student named Mathew Hunter, is an excellent source for researching Sitka Naval Operating Base and Sitka’s military history. In addition to an historical narrative the site offers historic photographs, maps, and present-day snapshots of Sitka’s military installations.

Sources and Citation

Photograph by Sam Maloof, Master Sergeant with the 65th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion stationed on Kiska, 1943.

NPS Sam Maloof WWII in Alaska Photograph Collection courtesy of Beverly Maloof.

While this guide is intended primarily to assist teachers and students in finding information about the World War II in Alaska it also important to be able to identify types of sources and how to properly cite them in a bibliography or note. Below is some general guidance and some links to more specific guidance to help you in you research.

Types of Sources:

Primary Sources
A primary source is a piece of information about a historical event or period in which the creator of the source was an actual participant in or a contemporary of a historical moment. Examples include historic photos, diaries, government documents, artifacts, and other written and tangible items created during the historical period you are studying.

Secondary Sources
A secondary source is a source that was not created first-hand by someone who participated in the historical era. Examples of secondary sources inlude journal articles and books written about historic events by historians, using primary and secondary sources. A secondary source is a person’s interpretation of what a primary source means.

Tertiary Sources
Tertiary sources are based on a collection of primary and secondary sources and may or may not be written by an expert. Tertiary sources are only used as exploratory sources and should never appear in your bibliography. These include dictionaries, encyclopedias, fact books, and guide books and are intended to give you ideas about what to research. Wikipedia is popular tertiary source that should not appear in your bibliography.

Citing Sources:

A key part of any research project is citing your sources. For historians there are generally three accepted styles of citation: Turabian, MLA, and Chicago Style. If you are doing a National History Day project Turabian or MLA must be used to cite your sources, however it is recommended that you ask your teacher before deciding which style to use. Below are the citations for each of the respective guides written in their bibliographic formats. Note the subtle differences in each.

MLA. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print.

Turabian, Kate L. 2013. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition. Chicago: University Chicago Press, 2010.

National History Day

Alaska Senator Lisa Murkowski visiting with Alaska’s National History Day students on the Capitol Steps in Washington, D.C.

One opportunity to research an Alaska World War II history topic is through the National History Day (NHD) program. NHD is an innovative curriculum framework in which students in grades 6-12 learn history by selecting topics of interest and launching into a year-long research project. The purpose of National History Day is to improve the teaching and learning of history in middle and high schools.

Following the school year, students

  • select a topic related to an annual History Day theme
  • select an entry category: website documentary exhibit research paper or performance
  • follow guidance for conducting historical research and create an original project

These projects are entered into competitions in the spring at local, state and national levels where they are evaluated by professional historians and educators. The program culminates with the national competition held each June at the University of Maryland at College Park.

Las Vegas: The Rise of the Mega-Casinos

In 1966 Howard Hughes checked into the penthouse of the Desert Inn and never left, preferring to buy the hotel rather than face eviction. He bought other hotels too—$300 million worth—ushering in an era in which mob interests were displaced by corporate conglomerates.

In 1989 longtime casino developer Steve Wynn opened the Mirage, the city’s first mega-resort. Over the next two decades the strip was transformed yet again: Old casinos were dynamited to make room for massive complexes taking their aesthetic cues from ancient Rome and Egypt, Paris, Venice, New York and other glamorous escapes.

Casinos and entertainment remained Las Vegas’ major employer, and the city grew with the size of the resorts and the numbers of annual visitors. In 2008, even as residents faced recession, rising unemployment and a housing price collapse, the city still received nearly 40 million visitors.

6. Does the U.S. military use AK-47s?

When the M16 rifle was first introduced in the Vietnam War, it had a number of issues. There were so many problems that American troops were killed in combat simply because they couldn't shoot back. Even after the kinks were worked out, a dirty M16 was (and is) much less likely to operate than a dirty AK-47. So U.S. troops were known to pick up AKs from their fallen enemies and keep them handy . just in case.

When the AK-47 was first introduced, it was such a great weapon that the Red Army actually hid it from the world. The U.S. didn't really know about its existence until the mid-1950s. Not that the American military would buy its standard-issue rifle from its main geopolitical foe and potential World War III adversary anyway.

These days, the U.S. does not field AK-47s, but some members of its military are trained to use them. Special operations forces from all branches might have to pick up an enemy AK-47 at some point because of the nature of their work -- sometimes help isn't coming.

Class 1 (Op) symbols: prefix operator (extensible) [ edit | edit source ]

Accumulation operators: sum, integral, union, etc. [ edit | edit source ]

These prefix operators accumulate the things they're prefixed to. "Extensible" means they have variable size to accommodate their operands, and their limits can appear below and above the operator.




/>   prod
/>   sum

The smallint command is not supported by the Wikia's LaTeX parser.

Named operators: sin, cos, etc. [ edit | edit source ]

If your favorite operator, say, "foo", isn't listed, then you won't be able to use foo(x) in your LaTeX equation. But don't fret. You can get the same result with operatorname(x). If your made-up operator needs displayed limits, as in lim or max , then use operatorname* , as in the example in the following table.





The command operatorname* is not supported by the wikia's LaTeX parser.


Despite having defeated the Icon of Sin and halting Hell’s invasion of Earth, the Doom Slayer’s victory over the demons did not come without cost. The death of the Khan Maykr and Hell’s conquest of Urdak have given the demons a chance to dominate all dimensions and reinitiate their invasion of Earth. To prevent this, the Doom Slayer, along with Samuel Hayden and ARC scientists, embark on a mission to find and liberate the Slayer’s ally, the Seraphim. Traveling by sea on an ARC Carrier towards the UAC Atlantica Facility, the Slayer fights his way to the Seraphim's containment pod. When Hayden requests he be uploaded into the pod, it is revealed that he and the Seraphim are one and the same.

After returning to the ARC Carrier, the Seraphim tasks the Slayer to find and retrieve the Father’s life sphere from the Blood Swamps of Hell in order to return the Father to physical form. After fighting his way through the Blood Swamps, the Slayer finds and retrieves the Father’s life sphere. However, the Slayer chooses to destroy the sphere rather than hand it to the Seraphim and instead retrieves the Dark Lord’s life sphere before returning to the ARC Carrier.

Despite most of the Carrier’s crew evacuating upon seeing the Dark Lord’s life sphere, a lone intern stays to help the Slayer reach Urdak assuming that the Slayer intends to resurrect and destroy the Dark Lord, which in effect will destroy all demons. Upon reaching the corrupted Urdak, the Doom Slayer fights his way to the Luminarium where anyone who has a life sphere may activate it. However, the Slayer is confronted by the Seraphim upon reaching the Luminarium’s entrance. Consumed by Urdak’s demonic corruption, the Seraphim is transformed into a demon and after a lengthy battle is ultimately defeated by the Slayer and is teleported away by the Father. Despite being warned that bringing the Dark Lord into physical form is irreversible, the Doom Slayer proceeds to summon him, and the Primeval manifests as a copy of the Slayer himself.

Vega II AK-17 - History

This comprehensive military history collection includes more than 8.7 million records of men and women who enlisted to serve in the United States Army during World War II. These transcriptions include enlistments from 1938 to 1946. The original punch cards enlistees completed when they joined the army were destroyed after being microfilmed in 1947. This collection contains a listing that is still useful for genealogists to find ancestors who enrolled.

Individual entries may include:
• Army serial number
• First name
• Last name
• State and county of residence
• Place of enlistment
• Date of enlistment (day, month, year)
• Grade
• Branch
• Term of enlistment
• Source
• Nativity
• Year of birth
• Race
• Education
• Civilian occupation
• Marital status
• Army component

The information in this database was provided by the National Archives and Records Administration and was compiled from the World War II Electronic Army Serial Number Merged File. Nearly nine million men and women are included in the database, which is comprised of materials from the War Department Adjutant General’s Office. Due to record losses, the database is not a complete listing of all individuals who enlisted during World War II, but is the most complete database available. Original records from this collection can be found as part of the National Archives and Records Administration Series Record Group 64.

Watch the video: Kalashnikov Evolution: Early AK variants