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David Rockefeller is the fifth and youngest son of John D. and the grandson of the founder of Standard Oil. He entered the family banking business and became one of the world's most prominent bankers.Rockefeller was born in New York City on June 12, 1915. He attended school in New York City and graduated with a bachelor's degree in English history and literature from Harvard University in 1936. Rockefeller married Margaret "Peggy" McGrath in September 1940 and they raised six children, including son David Rockefeller Jr.David Sr. During World War II, Rockefeller served in North Africa and France. Army Commendation Ribbon, and the French Legion of Honor.After the war, Rockefeller joined Chase Manhattan Bank, which his family controlled. In 1961, he became its president, and from then until 1981 he held at least one of the bank's three top management positions — president, CEO, or chairman. He also has served on the bank’s International Advisory Committee since 1981, along with others, including Henry Kissinger, George P. He also was the chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations from 1970 to 1985, an educational institution in which academic leaders, and leaders from the public and private sectors, meet to discuss foreign affairs.David Rockefeller is best known in certain circles for his role in the formation of the Trilateral Commission in 1973. The "three sides," from which the organization draws its name, are the world's three primary centers of political and economic power — the United States, Europe and Japan. The Trilateral Commission extends membership only to highly influential people from those three regions.While officially presented as a group of 350 people seeking to promote international understanding and globalization, to others the Trilateral Commission represents a "new cabal" that wishes to promote the economic interests of some of its wealthiest members. It is credited with huge influence that works in largely secretive ways, and has been the subject of conspiracy theories involving global banking operations.Now in his late 80s, David Rockefeller is the remaining surviving child of John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Abby Greene Aldrich, the daughter of Senator Nelson W. David is worth $2.5 billion, making him the 215th wealthiest person in the world.
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David Rockefeller, (born June 12, 1915, New York, New York, U.S.—died March 20, 2017, Pocantico Hills, New York), American banker and philanthropist who was the youngest of the five sons of John D. Rockefeller, Jr.
He received a B.S. degree from Harvard University (1936), did graduate study in economics at Harvard and at the London School of Economics, and then earned a Ph.D. degree from the University of Chicago (1940). After service in the U.S. Army during World War II (1942–45), he joined in 1946 the staff of the Chase National Bank of New York, of which his maternal uncle, Winthrop W. Aldrich, was chairman of the board. He rose steadily in the hierarchy to become senior vice president in 1952 and was instrumental in the merger (1955) of Chase National and the Bank of the Manhattan Company that resulted in the Chase Manhattan Bank. His rise in the merged institution was capped in 1969 when he became chairman of the board (1969–81) and chief executive officer (1969–80). His speciality became international banking, and he was a familiar figure to ministers and heads of state of various countries around the world, as well as to heads of multinational corporations. In 1973 Rockefeller founded the Trilateral Commission, a private international organization designed to confront the challenges posed by globalization and to encourage greater cooperation between the United States and its principal allies (Canada, Japan, and the countries of western Europe). He attended and contributed financially to the Bilderberg Conference, an annual three-day meeting attended by approximately 100 of Europe’s and North America’s most influential bankers, economists, politicians, and government officials.
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.
David Rockefeller’s Wife, Children, Networth & More
David Rockefeller, the banker with the famous last name known for his long time association to Chase Manhattan Corporation, has died aged 101.
Rockefeller served as chairman and chief executive throughout the 1970s, at Chase Manhattan, otherwise known as “David’s bank.”
Chase Manhattan had long been known as the Rockefeller bank, though the family never owned more than 5 percent of its shares, according to the NY Times.
David’s work made him a force in global financial affairs and in his country’s foreign policy. The banker and philanthropist, wielded vast influence around the world even longer as he spread the gospel of American capitalism.
Born June 12, 1915 in New York City, the youngest of six, David grew up in one of the richest and most powerful families in the nation’s history. His grandfather John D. Rockefeller, founded the Standard Oil Company in the 19th century and built a fortune that made him America’s first billionaire.
The privileged David and his siblings grew up in times where their parents dressed up for dinner. His father John D. Rockefeller Jr., –was the only son of the oil titan, he devoted his life to philanthropy. while his mother, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, was the daughter of Nelson Aldrich, a wealthy senator from Rhode Island.
David attended Lincoln School in Manhattan and went on to study at Harvard, receiving his B.S. in 1936. He later spent a year at the London School of Economics. He received a Ph.D in economics from the University of Chicago in 1940.
Two years later he enlisted in the Army where he served in North Africa and France in World War II. He was discharged in 1945. Prior to his army stint, he had served as a secretary to Fiorello H. La Guardia, New York’s, liberal Republican mayor.
Mr. Rockefeller began his banking career in 1946 as an assistant manager with the Chase National Bank. Even after retiring from active management in 1981, Mr. Rockefeller continued to serve Chase as chairman of its international advisory council and to act as the bank’s foreign diplomat.
Late in life Mr. Rockefeller increasingly devoted himself to philanthropy. In 2002 at age 87, he was the first in three generations of Rockefellers to publish an autobiography.
Margaret McGrath and David Rockefeller wedded in 1940. They were married for 56-years before her passing in 1996. The two had six children together: David Jr., Abby, Neva, Margaret, Richard and Eileen.
Margaret McGrath, also known as Peggy, was born September 28, 1915. Her father, Francis Sims McGrath was a partner in a prominent Wall Street law firm. Her mother, was Neva McGrath and she also had one brother, Gordon Randolph McGrath.
She was a student at the Chapin School in New York. Margaret McGrath met her husband at a dance, when he was a Harvard freshman, about seven years before getting married.
Peggy served as chairman at the Maine Coast Heritage Trust for many years she worked on behalf of farmland conservation, the American Farmland Trust, the New York Botanical Garden and the New York Philharmonic.
According to her obituary, she also made substantial contributions to Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts and the New York Philharmonic and was a trustee from 1953 to 1970.
Peggy and her husband who became big art collectors, own prized paintings — by Cézanne, Gauguin, Matisse, Picasso — were lent to the museum permanently.
The couple continued to collect art, including hundreds of paintings as well as works in colored glass, porcelain, petrified wood and furniture.
Peggy McGrath Rockefeller, a dedicated conservationist, died at 80 on March 26, 1996. She was known to have lead a low profile.
1. David Jr., was born July 24, 1941. He has served in many of the family institutions including Rockefeller Family & Associates and Rockefeller Financial Services. He is married to Susan Cohn Rockefeller.
2. Abby Rockefeller who was born in 1943, is known as an ecologist and feminist. She is known as the most rebellious daughter due to her admiration of Fidel Castro.
3. Neva Rockefeller also known as Neva Goodwin was born June 1, 1944. The economist and philanthropist has served as director of the Global Development and Environment Institute trustee and vice chair of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and Director of the Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors. She married to Bruce Mazlish with whom she had two children.
4. Margaret Rockefeller also known as Peggy Dulany was born in 1947. Peggy who graduated with honors in 1969 from Radcliffe College and earned a masters and doctorate from Harvard‘s Graduate School of Education –worked with the UN and and The Ford Foundation. She has divorced two times. She and first husband, David Quattrone are the parents of one son, Michael Dulany Quattrone.
5. Richard Rockfeller was born January 20, 1949. The physician and philanthropist died in 2014 at age 65 after his plane crashed while retuning home from a visit to his father.
Richard who practiced and taught medicine in Portland, Maine –was married to Nancy King with whom he had four children.
6. Eileen Rockefeller Growald was born in 1952. Also a philanthropist, she received her bachelor’s degree from Middlebury College in 1974 and her master’s in Early Childhood Education from Lesley College in association with the Shady Hill School in 1976.
She and her husband, Paul Growald have two children.
As of 2016, the businessman, had an estimated fortune of $3 billion according to Forbes. He was named the 49th richest person in the world.
Rockefeller, also known as ‘the banker’s banker’, according to the statement, is said to have donated almost $2 billion over his lifetime to various institutions including Rockefeller University, Harvard University and art museum.
In 2005, for his ninetieth birthday, he pledged to donate $5 million a year to the Museum of Modern Art, and bequest another $100 million when he dies.
In his 90’s he traveled more than half the year on behalf of Chase or groups like the Council on Foreign Relations and the Trilateral Commission. By 2005, when he was interviewed in his offices at Rockefeller Center, he had remained physically active, working with a trainer at the center’s sports club.
His largest pledge, however, came in 2006, when he announced he would give $225 million to the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, which he started with his brothers John, Nelson, Laurance and Winthrop, all now deceased.
Rockefeller died in his sleep at home in Pocantico Hills, New York of congestive heart failure.
Secret relations, secret connection, secret links
David Rockefeller’s family had many secrets . There was evidence of the involvement of the family Rockefeller in some of the most important political decisions in American history, about their deep and mysterious connection with the CIA. The Rockefellers also had connections to many politicians, in the US, and the world, and many more dark and suspicious things. David Rockefeller passed away, but his family still has enormous wealth and they pull many strings.
The Rockefeller family was extremely hated in the early 1900's, and for a reason! They had to hire several guards to protect them in their apartments because people called them thieves, murderers of women and children, complete liars and manipulators, etc.
The family was accused of unscrupulous enrichment. They didn't believe in minimal wages and they believed each worker, man, woman or a child, should earn as much as they are worth. Furthermore, their workers lived in fear after they sent armed men to stop a rebellion in Ludlow, where they killed eleven children, two women and a couple of men.
Since they had a bad history with the workers, they needed good news in the media. That is why they started their own magazine and teamed up with an influential publisher Hearst, to publish good things about Rockefeller's and lie about their rivals.
David Rockefeller - History
John then went on to found the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research (now called Rockefeller University) to spur the study of disease and its prevention. Numerous techniques born from the institution have since transformed biochemistry and medicine, including the treatment of pneumonia and spinal meningitis.
Another momentous act came in 1902, when John established the General Education Board in a bid to support education in the US “regardless of race, sex or creed”, with a specific emphasis on promoting higher education. Then, of course, came the Rockefeller Foundation, an institution John established in 1913 to “promote the wellbeing of mankind throughout the world”. It has done exactly that, donating millions to promote education, public health, scientific advancement, the arts, social research and more. The list of organisations and causes helped by the foundation is nothing short of astounding.
Despite the criticisms that enshrouded John’s career – including various accusations of tax evasion – his habit of charitable giving was one that started long before he became rich. From his very first paycheque, John began making regular donations to his local Baptist church, a Sunday school and an African-American church. It is therefore hard to deny it was his religious beliefs (rather than, say, a quest to elude taxation) that
drove his altruism.
“Maybe we live in such a secular age that we don’t understand the kind of Christianity that he adhered to”, Cox explained. “Let’s put it rather crudely: you earn $10, you give away your first three, and that started very early in his life as a young man, as he was beginning to build up his fortune. I think he genuinely did believe that it was the duty of the wealthy man in the Christian sense to disperse his fortune – and in useful ways – to help others.
“He embodied what many people would call the prime virtues of Protestantism – you know, hard work, getting up early, only having one wife, a standard family, religious, and also with a strong sense of philanthropy. He talked about this quite a lot: that the rich man shouldn’t die rich, the rich man should die having done good things with the wealth that he has created.”
Down the line
Born on January 29, 1874, John Jr was to follow in his father’s footsteps and make his own sizeable mark upon the world. Raised in Cleveland alongside his three sisters, John Jr was little fazed by his father’s vast wealth. After graduating from Brown University, he worked at the Standard Oil headquarters during a time of considerable upheaval. Consequently, feeling disenchanted, John Jr took a leap and left the business world behind to focus solely on philanthropy.
Despite his dedication to altruism, the oft-changeable tide of public opinion began to turn in 1913 when around 9,000 coal miners working for the Rockefeller-owned Colorado Fuel and Iron Company decided to strike, demanding better wages, hours and accommodation. The affair soon turned violent, with workers’ families evicted from their homes and forced to live in makeshift tents during a harsh winter. By 1914, tragedy struck as more than 40 people, including 11 children, were shot and killed by private security forces.
Blame was placed on John Jr slated by the newspapers, the heir soon found himself in front of Congress, and the Rockefeller name suffered perhaps its biggest blow. For years after, John Jr was embroiled in controversy, but continued his philanthropic work with gusto, focusing on rebuilding his reputation one good deed at a time. Some such deeds include creating the world famous Rockefeller Centre, donating the land that would later be transformed into the United Nations headquarters, and restoring Colonial Williamsburg. However, in addition to making incredibly generous contributions to various causes, perhaps John Jr’s most profound imprint on the world came through the work of his children.
The five Rockefeller brothers. Left to right: David, Winthrop, John D Rockefeller III, Nelson and Laurance
A family like no other
While Abby Rockefeller pursued charitable work out of the public limelight, her five brothers each carved a reputation in their own right, weaving through the interconnected spheres of business, politics and philanthropy in a manner unlike that of any family in US history.
The eldest of the brothers, John III, devoted his life to foreign affairs and philanthropy. Inspired by a trip around the world following his graduation, John III developed a deep interest in Asia that resulted in the creation of the Asia Society and the Council on Economic and Cultural Affairs. John III was also responsible for the Population Council, the first such organisation to bring issues of overpopulation to the fore, and the Lincoln Centre, now one of the world’s leading performing arts centres. John III also founded and supported numerous NGOs before his untimely death in a car crash in 1978.
Nelson was perhaps the most high profile of the siblings. Despite his father’s efforts to instil in him the values of restraint and modesty, Nelson always had grand plans and spoke about becoming president from childhood. After a stint at Chase Manhattan Bank, he went on to lead the development of the Rockefeller Centre through a tumultuous economic period, eventually serving as its president. Nelson then entered politics, transforming the New York skyline through the numerous construction projects he instigated while serving as Governor of New York for four terms between 1953 and 1973. He then served as Vice President of the US under President Gerald Ford between 1974 and 1977.
Laurance also had a big impact on New York, but via Wall Street, as a pioneer in venture capitalism. During his decades on the New York Stock Exchange, Laurance invested in hundreds of start-ups that focused on electronics, aviation, computers and biotechnology. Laurance had a talent for sensing the next big thing, as can be seen in his early investments in Apple and Intel. He was also a keen environmentalist and was instrumental in establishing and expanding numerous national parks throughout the US, from Wyoming to Hawaii.
Lessons in modesty worked for Winthrop, who was unwilling to merely waltz his way to the top based on his family name alone. Instead, he started his career as an apprentice working in his family’s oilfields. After the Second World War, Winthrop went into politics and became famous for the profound cultural and economic change he propelled in the state of Arkansas while serving as governor between 1967 and 1971. He introduced the state’s first minimum wage and the freedom of information law, and tightened insurance legislation, to name but a few examples.
The youngest brother, David, was a powerful force on Wall Street, as well as an incredibly influential individual who traversed the highest echelons of society. After graduating from the London School of Economics, David went on to gain a PhD from the University of Chicago in 1940. David’s first job, which involved writing letters for the Mayor of New York, came to a grinding halt – like so many others – as a result of the Second World War. Choosing to forgo the use of his family name, David enlisted as a private, rising to the rank of captain during his service in the US Army.
The Rockefellers changed the nature of doing business, establishing efficiency as the baseline and waste as anathema for any enterprise
After the war, David joined the company in which he would stay for the entirety of his professional career: Chase Manhattan Bank. Given that his uncle Winthrop Aldrich was chairman of the bank and his father and grandfather were its largest shareholders, David was unsurprisingly deemed to be nothing more than a spoiled rich kid upon arrival. However, he soon proved his worth, while his habit of getting the public subway to work every day helped to chip away at the spoiled status. His hard work saw him make his own way to the top, becoming co-CEO in 1960 and sole CEO in 1969.
During his time at the helm, David used his worldwide network to increase the bank’s foreign branches from 11 to 73, with Chase Bank becoming the first western bank to open branches in China and Russia, securing its position as a truly global institution. David was also responsible for re-energising the bank from within, creating HR, planning and marketing departments with the help of none other than the ‘father of management’, Peter Drucker. Though the 1970s proved difficult, David held the role of CEO until retiring in 1981.
When David joined Chase Bank in 1946, it was a $4.8bn institution. By 1981, it was worth $76.2bn in assets. “Well, he was the banker of all bankers”, Cox commented. As a result of two vast mergers, the bank is today the biggest in the US.
Changing the world
There are questions to be asked about how one man – or family – can possibly come to accumulate such incredible wealth as that of the Rockefellers. And yes, there are aspects of John’s strategy that were aggressive and uncompetitive. However, this approach to making mergers and acquisitions is one that has since become a standard business practice – he was just the first to do it with such success. Through his willingness to do things differently, John laid the groundwork for an industry that is integral to the global economy, and an area of commerce that has spurred the development and innovation of countless others.
At a time when oil was expensive and much of it was wasted, John made the production process far more efficient and cost effective, thereby making kerosene affordable for the masses – so much so that it soon overtook whale and coal oil (and even electricity for some time) as fuels, lighting up America street by street. John’s resourcefulness also prompted the development of some 300 oil by-products, ranging from paints and lubricating oils to anaesthetics. In this respect, he changed the nature of doing business, establishing efficiency as the baseline and waste as
anathema for any enterprise.
“He didn’t come from the establishment. He was in very many ways – I suppose this makes the story rather heroic – a self-made man”, said Cox. Indeed, John was the archetypal embodiment of the American Dream. And while he revolutionised business strategy and the oil industry, his grandsons, specifically Laurance and David, went on to shape the US financial market through their keen sense of forward thinking.
More remarkable still is the impact the Rockefellers had on education, medical research, equality, social science and the arts. Their support has trickled down to so many different organisations, helping millions upon millions along the way. John alone gave away $540m throughout his lifetime, but the true cost of the family’s ongoing philanthropy is simply unknown.
Key events in the Rockefeller family history:
1839: John D Rockefeller was born on a farm in Richford, New York on July 8
1859: With $2,000 in funds, John formed a partnership with Maurice B Clark
1863: The two partners entered the oil business, creating a company called Andrews, Clark & Co
1870: The Standard Oil Company was created with a capital of $1m
1874: John Rockefeller’s son, John Jr, was born in Cleveland, Ohio
1890: John’s donation of $600,000 helped fund the establishment of the University of Chicago
1901: The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University) was founded
1906: John III, John Jr’s son, was born in New York City on March 21
1911: The Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of the Standard Oil Company
1915: David Rockefeller, the youngest child of John Jr, was born in New York City
1946: David joined Chase Bank as an assistant manager in the foreign banking department
1969: David was named Chairman of the Board of Directors and CEO of Chase Manhattan Bank
1994: The David Rockefeller Centre for Latin American Studies opened at Harvard University
2000: The Rockefeller family’s ownership of Rockefeller Centre ended after being sold for $1.85bn
2017: David died at the age of 101 in Upstate New York with a net worth of $3.3bn
Tycoon John D. Rockefeller Couldn't Hide His Father's Con Man Past
When he was a child, John D. Rockefeller watched his father count his money—huge wads of which he refused to keep in a bank and lovingly stacked in front of his impressionable son. “He made a practice of never carrying less than $1,000,” the oil baron recalled later in life, 𠇊nd he kept it in his pocket. He was able to take care of himself, and was not afraid to carry his money.”
William Avery Rockefeller’s son would go on to become one of the richest men of all time. Famously money-hungry, John D. spoke admiringly of his father’s piles of cash long after he had made a fortune that would have surpassed his father’s wildest dreams. But though the head of Standard Oil was proud to tell the world where he had gotten his own appreciation for cold hard cash, he always excluded a detail: where his father’s cash came from.
In fact, William’s money had come from a slew of shady business ventures, from pretending to be a deaf and blind peddler to posing as a doctor to hawk patent medicines. But after his stratospheric rise to the heights of Gilded Age business, John D. Rockefeller did everything he could to downplay the exploits of his parent. He was in his sixties before accusations about his father’s unethical business practices and possible criminal behavior came back to haunt himusations that sparked a race to find out the truth about Rockefeller’s father.
The accusations came courtesy of Ida Tarbell, the muckraking journalist who exposed Standard Oil’s secretive business practices, which included cutting secret deals to squelch its competitors. As the capstone to her multi-part exposé in McClure’s magazine, she published a two-part character study of John D. Rockefeller in 1905.
Ida M Tarbell was a leading muckraker and well-known writer of the Progressive era of the early 1900s.
The articles painted a portrait of a man obsessed with money𠅊n intimidating, secretive figure whose personality was warped by ambition. But just as shocking as her portrait of one of the United States’ most famous men was what she wrote about his father. Tarbell accused William Avery Rockefeller of posing as a physician and exploiting others for financial gain, and brought to light allegations of rape and horse thievery against him.
During John D.’s childhood, she wrote, his father had been “the leader in all that was reckless and wild in the community, and was classed by the respectable and steady-going as a dangerous character on whom no doubt much was fastened that did not belong.” William had gone missing for long periods of time during John D.’s childhood, she wrote, leaving his family impoverished and forcing them to move from town to town.
John D. had spent a lifetime trying to bury the truth about a relative whose actions threatened the entire empire he had worked so hard to build. Though he publicly claimed he had built his career on the lessons of his parents, he had really only modeled himself after one, his strict mother Eliza. She had long since been abandoned by William Avery Rockefeller, the renegade husband she had been unable to reform.
Suspected of horse stealing and even indicted for rape in 1849, William had been an unstable father figure. But search as Tarbell might for the man nicknamed vil Bill,” she had not been able to track him beyond John D.’s young adulthood.
The oil magnate was incensed by what he saw as a maligning of his father. Though he typically refused to let down his guard, one journalist who showed him Tarbell’s story witnessed a rare crack in his famous veneer. “The poison tongue of this poison woman,” he ranted. “What a wretched utterance from one calling herself a historian.”
Now the world knew the truth about William Rockefeller𠅋ut nobody knew where he was. His whereabouts were only exposed thanks to another news legend who despised Rockefeller and his business practices. Joseph Pulitzer, the news magnate who owned the World, sensed that exposing Rockefeller’s roots would not just humiliate the man, but sell more papers. Beginning in 1901, he offered an $8,000 reward—the equivalent of over $240,000 in modern dollars𠅏or anyone who could reveal the whereabouts of Rockefeller’s mysterious father.
Pulitzer sent star reporters across the country to try to track down William, but they came back empty-handed. Seven years later, in 1908, a World reporter named A.B. Macdonald finally got the scoop. But he was too late: William Rockefeller had died six months earlier.
That didn’t stop him from fleshing out the story of William Rockefeller in print. The article had even more bombshells about the magnates’ father: For years, he had lived under assumed names and was known as Dr. Levingston before his death. He “had a big jug of medicine and [he] treated all diseases from the same jug,” an associate recalled, remembering that the supposed doctor would laugh about his concoction magically being able to cure anyone willing to give him money.
The article also claimed that William Rockefeller had been a bigamist. During John D. Rockefeller’s childhood, he had lived with John D.’s mother, Eliza, but a mistress had lived under the same roof as a housekeeper. Eventually, he had remarried without obtaining a divorce, living a double life and splitting his time between two families. His new wife, Margaret Allen, ended up staying married to him for 50 years and did not realize he had not legally married her until after his death.
The accusations of quackery, rape and bigamy all flew in the face of the thrifty, wholesome image John D. Rockefeller had carefully crafted for years. They also represented serious moral outrages during a conservative era. But perhaps the most shocking accusation of all was that his sons had known his whereabouts for 25 years, and had been quietly supporting him.
This claim was vigorously denied by Frank Rockefeller, who called the story an “unqualified lie” in a statement. He stated that his father had been forced into seclusion “precisely to protect himself from being hounded by cranks and others who would break in upon the peace and quiet of his retired life.”
The story was true, however. The Rockefellers had known their father’s location for years and had been sending him money, perhaps in an effort to buy his silence. As for John D. Rockefeller, he ignored Pulitzer’s exposé and tried to move on—presumably eager for the public to forget his connection to𠅊nd similarities with𠅊 father who had no qualms about cheating others in the name of profit. He had spent a lifetime trying to escape his roots, and wasn’t about to stop now.
What Really Happened to Michael Rockefeller
Asmat is, in its way, a perfect place. Everything you could possibly need is here. It’s teeming with shrimp and crabs and fish and clams. In the jungle there are wild pig, the furry, opossumlike cuscus, and the ostrichlike cassowary. And sago palm, whose pith can be pounded into a white starch and which hosts the larvae of the Capricorn beetle, both key sources of nutrition. The rivers are navigable highways. Crocodiles 15 feet long prowl their banks, and jet-black iguanas sun on uprooted trees. There are flocks of brilliant red-and-green parrots. Hornbills with five-inch beaks and blue necks.
And secrets, spirits, laws and customs, born of men and women who have been walled off by ocean, mountains, mud and jungle for longer than anyone knows.
Until 50 years ago, there were no wheels here. No steel or iron, not even any paper. There’s still not a single road or automobile. In its 10,000 square miles, there is but one airstrip, and outside of the main “city” of Agats, there isn’t a single cell tower. Here it’s hard to know where the water begins and the land ends, as the Arafura Sea’s 15-foot tides inundate the coast of southwest New Guinea, an invisible swelling that daily slides into this flat swamp and pushes hard against great outflowing rivers. It is a world of satiny, knee-deep mud and mangrove swamps stretching inland, a great hydroponic terrarium.
We were crossing the mouth of the Betsj River, a turbulent place of incoming tide and outrushing water, when the waves slammed and our 30-foot longboat rolled. I crawled forward, reached under a plastic tarp and fumbled blindly in my duffel for the Ziploc bag holding my satellite phone, and slipped it into my pocket. I hadn’t wanted to bring the phone, but at the last minute I’d thought how stupid it would be to die for want of a call. If Michael Rockefeller had had a radio when his catamaran overturned in this exact spot in 1961, he never would have disappeared.
The Rockefeller family (top: Michael is standing at the right). (Keystone / Hulton Archive / Getty Images) Michael Rockefeller’s travels to New Guinea ultimately took him beyond the reach of his famous family. (AP Images) Sauer is the son of Samut, whom colonial authorities killed in a 1958 raid—a prelude to the events that would ensnare Rockefeller. (Carl Hoffman) After he disappeared, ships, helicopters and airplanes were mobilized to search the swamps of the Asmat region. (Eliot Elisofon / Time Life Pictures /Getty Images) Kokai, the former head man of Pirien village, vividly recalled events before and after Rockefeller’s disappearance but maintained he knew nothing about it. (Carl Hoffman) An Asmat ancestor skull, often used as a pillow to keep the spirits at bay, has the lower jaw intact—unlike the skulls of those who have been headhunted. (Musee du Quai Branly / Scala / Art Resource, NY) In Pirien, Kokai dons traditional Asmat gear: Cuscus fur headband, nose-bone ornament, feathered bag and a bow and arrows. (Carl Hoffman) Family album: Men from Otsjanep and Pirien examine copies of photographs Michael Rockefeller took in the area in 1961. (Carl Hoffman) Michael's father, Nelson, faced the press. (Photo by Eliot Elisofon//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images) On the Arafura Sea (from rear): the author’s boat pilot, Wilem Wilem’s assistant, Manu and the author’s interpreter, Amates. (Carl Hoffman) In Pirien: The author kneels (center) with members of the family of former head man Kokai (behind the author, in striped shirt). (Carl Hoffman) Custom revived: Villagers in Pirien and Jisar complete the roof on the new jeu, or men’s house, the government allowed them to build. (Carl Hoffman) Rockefeller was most impressed by the Asmat people’s ancestor poles, or bisj—elaborate, sexually suggestive signs that a death had yet to be avenged. (© The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY)
He was 23 years old, the privileged son of New York Gov. Nelson Rockefeller, seven months into the adventure of a lifetime that had transformed him from clean-cut student to bearded photographer and art collector. One moment his boat was being tossed by the waves, just as ours was, and the next he and his Dutch companion were clinging to an overturned hull. And then Rockefeller had swum for shore and vanished. No trace of him was ever found, despite a two-week search involving ships, airplanes, helicopters and thousands of locals prowling the coasts and jungle swamps. The fact that such a simple, banal thing had happened to him made what was happening to us feel all the more real. There would be no foreboding music. One bad wave and I’d be clinging to a boat in the middle of nowhere.
The official cause of Michael’s death was drowning, but there had long been a multitude of rumors. He’d been kidnapped and kept prisoner. He’d gone native and was hiding out in the jungle. He’d been consumed by sharks. He’d made it to shore, only to be killed and eaten by the local Asmat headhunters. The story had grown, become mythical. There had been an off-Broadway play about him, a novel, a rock song, even a television show in the 1980s hosted by Leonard Nimoy.
I’d been fascinated with the story ever since I first saw a photo of Michael on his first trip to what was then called Netherlands New Guinea. In it he is kneeling, holding his 35-millimeter camera under the close eyes of natives. He was working on a documentary film in the highlands of the Great Baliem Valley. That film, Dead Birds, was a groundbreaking ethnographic examination of a barely contacted, stone-age culture that engaged in constant ritual warfare. The mountains, the mist, the naked men yelling and screaming and attacking one another with spears and bow and arrow, had fascinated and entranced me, as had the whole idea of contact between people from dramatically different worlds. In my 20s, I’d tried to get there, but it was too expensive for my young budget, so instead I’d ended up, briefly, in Borneo.
I spent hours looking at that photo, wondering what Michael had seen and felt, wondering what had really happened to him, wondering if I might be able to solve the mystery. That he had been kidnapped or had run away didn’t make sense. If he had drowned, well, that was that. Except he’d been attached to flotation aids. As for sharks, they rarely attacked men in these waters and no trace of him had been found. Which meant that if he hadn’t perished during his swim, there had to be more.
There had to have been some collision, some colossal misunderstanding. The Asmat people were warriors drenched in blood, but Dutch colonial authorities and missionaries had already been in the area for almost a decade by the time Michael disappeared, and the Asmat had never killed a white. If he had been murdered, it struck to the heart of a clash between Westerners and Others that had been ongoing ever since Columbus first sailed to the New World. I found it compelling that in this remote corner of the world the Rockefellers and their power and money had been impotent, had come up with nothing. How was that even possible?
I started poking around in Dutch colonial archives and the records of Dutch missionaries, and I found more than I’d ever imagined. After the ships and planes and helicopters had gone home, a series of new investigations took place. There were pages and pages of reports, cables and letters discussing the case, sent by the Dutch government, Asmat-speaking missionaries on the ground and Catholic Church authorities—and most of it had never been made public. Men who had been key participants in those investigations had remained silent for 50 years, but they were still alive and finally willing to talk.
On February 20, 1957, in a city of concrete and steel 6,000 times bigger than the largest hamlet in Asmat, Nelson Rockefeller introduced the world to a new kind of seeing. He was 49 years old, square-jawed and ambitious, the grandson of Standard Oil founder John D. Rockefeller. At the time of Nelson’s birth, which was announced on the front page of the New York Times, John D. was the richest man on earth, with a fortune estimated at $900 million. In two years, Nelson would become the governor of New York. In 1960, he would run for the presidency. In 1974, he would become vice president of the United States.
Inside a family-owned, four-story townhouse with elegantly curving bay windows at 15 West 54th Street—just around the corner from the Museum of Modern Art, which his mother, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, had helped found—guests began arriving at 8:30 p.m. to a private reception heralding the first exhibit of the Museum of Primitive Art, which would open to the public the following day. The things they were celebrating came from a world away. A carved paddle from Easter Island. The elongated, exaggerated face of a wooden mask from Nigeria. Pre-Columbian Aztec and Mayan stone figures from Mexico. Around these objects were no ethnographic dioramas, no depictions of African huts or canoes and fishing nets. They rested atop stark white cylinders and cubes, illuminated by track lighting against white walls. They were to be viewed as works of art.
Nelson was dressed in the height of New York tribal finery: black tie. As the guests nibbled canapés and sipped wine, he told them that his new museum was “the first. of its kind in the world”—dedicated exclusively to primitive art. “We do not want to establish primitive art as a separate kind of category,” he said, “but rather to integrate it, with all its missing variety, into what is already known to the arts of man. Our aim will always be to select objects of outstanding beauty whose rare quality is the equal of works shown in other museums of art throughout the world, and to exhibit them so that everyone may enjoy them in the fullest measure.”
Michael Rockefeller was just 18 years old that night, and it’s easy to imagine the power the event had for him. His father’s pride over the new museum, the exotic beauty and pull of the objects, the cream of New York’s elite admiring them. Michael was tall and slender, clean-shaven and square-jawed like his father, with thick, black-rimmed glasses. He’d grown up with his two sisters and two brothers in the family townhouse in Manhattan and on the Rockefeller estate in Westchester County. As Abby Rockefeller had done with Nelson, so Nelson did with Michael, schooling him in art the way other boys were schooled in baseball, taking him to art dealers on Saturday afternoons. His twin sister, Mary, remembered how they loved to watch their father rearrange his art.
As he neared the end of his four years at Harvard, Michael was, in the words of a friend, “a quiet, artistic spirit.” And he was torn. His father expected his son to be like him—to pursue a career in one of the family enterprises, banking or finance, and indulge his artistic passions on the side. Michael graduated cum laude from Harvard with a B.A. in history and economics, but he yearned for something else. He’d traveled widely, working on his father’s ranch in Venezuela for a summer, visiting Japan in 1957, and he’d been surrounded not just by art, but by primitive art. And how could he make his “primitive art”-collecting father prouder than by going to its source and plunging in deeper than the forceful governor and presidential candidate had ever dreamed?
At Harvard he met the filmmaker Robert Gardner, who was beginning work on Dead Birds, and signed on as the sound engineer. “Mike was very quiet and very modest,” said Karl Heider, who as a Harvard graduate student in anthropology had shared a tent on the 1961 film expedition with him. In the evenings, Heider was astonished to see the wealthiest member of the team darning his socks.
But Michael was ambitious, too. “Michael’s father had put him on the board of his museum,” Heider told me, “and Michael said he wanted to do something that hadn’t been done before and to bring a major collection to New York.” He had already corresponded with Adrian Gerbrands, deputy director of the Dutch National Museum of Ethnology, who’d recently begun fieldwork in Asmat. The region was home to people who lived as hunter-gatherers and yet produced carvings of astounding beauty. “Asmat,” Heider said, “was the obvious choice.”
Michael made a scouting trip there during a mid-May break in filming. Only in the mid-1950s had a few Dutch missionaries and government officials begun pacifying the Asmat, but even by 1961 many had never seen a Westerner, and inter-village warfare and headhunting remained common. “Now this is wild and somehow more remote country than what I have ever seen before,” Michael wrote. In many ways, the Asmat world at the time was a mirror image of every taboo of the West. In some areas, men had sex with each other. They occasionally shared wives. In bonding rituals, they sometimes drank one another’s urine. They killed their neighbors, and they hunted human heads and ate human flesh.
They weren’t savages, however, but biologically modern men with all the brainpower and manual dexterity necessary to fly a 747, with a language so complex it had 17 tenses, whose isolated universe of trees, ocean, river and swamp constituted their whole experience. They were pure subsistence hunter-gatherers who lived in a world of spirits—spirits in the rattan and in the mangrove and sago trees, in the whirlpools, in their own fingers and noses. Every villager could see them, talk to them. There was their world, and there was the kingdom of the ancestors across the seas, known as Safan, and an in-between world, and all were equally real. No death just happened even sickness came at the hand of the spirits because the spirits of the dead person were jealous of the living and wanted to linger and cause mischief. The Asmat lived in a dualistic world of extremes, of life and death, where one balanced the other. Only through elaborate sacred feasts and ceremonies and reciprocal violence could sickness and death be kept in check by appeasing and chasing those ancestors back to Safan, back to the land beyond the sea.
Expert woodcarvers in a land without stone, the Asmat crafted ornate shields, paddles, drums, canoes and ancestor poles, called bisj, embodying the spirit of an ancestor. The bisj poles were 20-foot-high masterpieces of stacked men interwoven with crocodiles and praying mantises and other symbols of headhunting. The poles were haunting, expressive, alive, and each carried an ancestor’s name. The carvings were memorial signs to the dead, and to the living, that their deaths had not been forgotten, that the responsibility to avenge them was still alive.
Map of the Asmat Cultural Region. (Guilbert Gates)
The Asmat saw themselves in the trees—just as a man had feet and legs and arms and a head, so did the sago tree, which had roots and branches and a fruit, a seed on top. Just as the fruit of the sago tree nourished new trees, so the fruit of men, their heads, nourished young men. They all knew some version of the story of the first brothers in the world, one of the Asmat creation myths, in which the older brother cajoles the younger into killing him and placing his head against the groin of a young man. The skull nourishes the initiate’s growth, even as he takes the victim’s name and becomes him. It was through that story that men learned how to headhunt and how to butcher a human body and how to use that skull to make new men from boys and to keep life flowing into the world.
The completion of a bisj pole usually unleashed a new round of raids revenge was taken and balance restored, new heads obtained—new seeds to nourish the growth of boys into men—and the blood of the victims rubbed into the pole. The spirit in the pole was made complete. The villagers then engaged in sex, and the poles were left to rot in the sago fields, fertilizing the sago and completing the cycle.
Anything outside of the tangible immediacy of what the Asmats could see had to come from that spirit world—it was the only comprehensible explanation. An airplane was opndettaji—a passing-over-canoe-of-the-spirits. White men came from the land beyond the sea, the same place the spirits lived, and so must be super beings.
Michael did not plunge into this realm a lone adventurer he was a Rockefeller, not to mention a trustee of the Museum of Primitive Art. His traveling party included, among others, Gerbrands and René Wassing, a government anthropologist assigned to him from the Dutch New Guinea Department of Native Affairs.
Michael’s field notes from his first trip to Asmat and the letters he wrote reveal a deepening seriousness regarding his collecting. Before his second expedition, he laid out “objectives themes of investigation criterion for stylistic variation.” He wanted to produce books and mount the biggest exhibition of Asmat art ever.
Michael returned to Asmat in October 1961. Wassing joined him again and in Agats he badgered a Dutch patrol officer into selling him his homemade catamaran, into which Michael stuffed a wealth of barter goods—steel axes, fishing hooks and line, cloth and tobacco, to which the Asmats had become addicted. He and Wassing, accompanied by two Asmat teenagers, visited 13 villages over three weeks.
Michael collected everywhere he went and in quantity, loading up on drums, bowls, bamboo horns, spears, paddles, shields. He was most impressed by the bisj poles. With no sense of irony, he wrote: “This was one kind of object that seemed to me inviolate for the encroachment of western commercialism upon Asmat art.” In the southern village of Omadesep he’d bought a set of four on his first trip they now stand in the Michael C. Rockefeller Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, which absorbed the collections of the Museum of Primitive Art after it closed in 1976.
David Rockefeller Auction Preview: A Personal History of My Grandfather's Table
This week the historic Peggy & David Rockefeller Collection will be sold at Christie's. The collection, comprised of over 1500 works of masterpiece paintings, decorative objects, porcelain and furniture, is predicted to bring in over 600 million with the proceeds donated entirely to 12 charities the family has chosen over decades. The sale will be a tribute to American philanthropy, as well as a testament to DR's love of beauty, life and time with family and friends, which often centered around a gorgeous dining table set with flowers, Italian linen and 18th century silver.
A great collector, but also a great believer of making such treasures a part of daily life, my grandfather would enjoy meals with friends and family on 18th century sets of china, with beautiful linens, flower arrangements and of course pieces of silver that bear a history just as lovely as the pieces themselves, shining on a dinner table. DR was quite close to his Aunt Lucy Aldrich (sister of his mother Abby Aldrich Rockefeller), and frequently recounted stories of her intrepid spirit, feisty nature and her great love of porcelain and silver. Many of these treasures are from Lucy's estate, and it is fair to say that DR inherited the adoration of a beautiful table setting from her.
A George II Silver dish from the David & Peggy Rockefeller Collection
A particularly charming artificat in David's collection, inherited from Aunt Lucy, is a shallow circular dish which is based on a Chinese Export service. Made in London in 1741 by silversmith Isabel Pero, the bowl was from the Lucy Aldrich estate and played a significant part of weekly meals. It often held ice cream for Sunday lunch or Floating Island desert made by his wonderful staff, (who were like family themselves). The importance of the bowl became even more enhanced as the history unfolded.
Not just a valuable piece from a beloved and influential Aunt Lucy, the fact that the piece was crafted by a female silversmith is revelatory as d uring the 18th century there were very few women in the business. The 3rd wife of John Pero, Isabel Pero took up the enterprise after her husband passed away and carried on with a flourishing shop. Isabel's work proved to stand the test of time to be sure. "I have always thought this dish, which we acquired from Aunt Lucy's estate, to be one of the most beautiful silver pieces we own. The fluting is especially appealing, and it is a very good size for serving dessert." - David Rockefeller. (D. Fennimore et al., p. 402).
A George III Silver Teapot from the David & Peggy Rockefeller Collection
Teatime was often a daily essential on the calendar for DR, and strong earl grey tea would be served around 4pm in a George III silver teapot, along with oatmeal cookies. The teapot was crafted by another female silversmith by the name of Hester Bateman, who was dubbed 'Queen of Silversmithing' and ran a prolific silver workshop in the 18th century. Inheriting the business from her husband, Hester created one of the first ‘mass market’ business of the time. The venture stayed in the family as it was handed down to her son and daughter in law Anne Bateman carried on the tradition of women in business. The George III silver teapot with the Bateman mark in the collection is a stunning yet understated piece.
During the 18 th century, there were four prominent female silversmiths and two are represented in the sale with pieces from the workshops of Hester and Isabel. It seems fitting to have such a strong representation of women in business as David was always surrounded by strong women. His mother founded the Museum of Modern Art, his Aunt Lucy was known for being a fearless world traveler as a single woman, and his wife Peggy started a cattle breeding business. The representation of female entrepreneurs in the collection is certainly no surprise.
The wonderful lesson that DR instilled in his family was that life is to be enjoyed, family cherished and to whom much is given, much must be given back. This auction of beautiful art, objects and furniture will be a testament to these lessons, and certainly a visually beautiful one.
I’m an equestrian athlete, designer and New Yorker. I travel internationally as a competitive show jumper and am passionate about the sport. I graduated from Columbia…
I’m an equestrian athlete, designer and New Yorker. I travel internationally as a competitive show jumper and am passionate about the sport. I graduated from Columbia University with a degree in political science and launched a brand of clothing and equestrian inspired handbags in 2011. Glad to share my views and observations here as a Forbes Contributor.
From a China Traveler
Given China's vastness, it was only due to the remarkable thoughtfulness of our hosts that the six members of our Chase group were able to see and experience so much during just ten days in Peking, Sian, Shanghai and Canton. In terms of simple geographic expanse, a week and a half visit to China is something equivalent to trying to see New York City in less than one and a half minutes.
One is impressed immediately by the sense of national harmony. From the loud patriotic music at the border onward, there is very real and pervasive dedication to Chairman Mao and Maoist principles. Whatever the price of the Chinese Revolution, it has obviously succeeded not only in producing more efficient and dedicated administration, but also in fostering high morale and community of purpose.
General economic and social progress is no less impressive. Only 25 years ago, starvation and abject poverty are said to have been more the rule than the exception in China. Today, almost everyone seems to enjoy adequate, if Spartan, food, clothing and housing. Streets and homes are spotlessly clean, and medical care greatly improved. Crime, drug addiction, prostitution and venereal disease have been virtually eliminated. Doors are routinely left unlocked. Rapid strides are being made in agriculture, reforestation, industry and education. Eighty per cent of school‐age children now attend primary school, compared with 20 per cent just twenty years ago.
Each step of the trip was choreographed precisely by our hosts and, though virtually all our requests were granted, we clearly saw what they wanted us to. Still, there was little sense of the constant security found in some other Communist countries. Issues such as Taiwan and Cambodia evoke strong positions, but conversation does not founder on ideological shoals. The Chinese seem so totally convinced of the correctness of their own world view that they do not feel they have to push it aggressively.
Despite the constant impressions of progress, however, some gray areas and basic contradictions also emerged. Three major questions remain in my own mind.
First, can individuality and creativity continue to be contained to the degree they are now in a nation with such a rich cultural heritage?
The enormous social advances of China have benefited greatly from the singleness of ideology and purpose. But a stiff price has been paid in terms of cultural and intellectual constraint. There are only eight different theatrical productions in the entire country. The universities are rigorously politicized, with little room for inquiry unrelated to Chairman Mao's thought. Freedom to travel or change jobs is restricted. When asked about personal creativity, one ceramics craftsman answered only that there was not time for individual art if the masses were to be served.
Second, will the highly decentralized Chinese economy be able to adapt successfully to expanded foreign trade and technological improvements?
Considering the problems to be overcome, economic growth in China over the last 25 years has been quite remarkable, with an annual average rise in gross national product of 4 to 5 per cent. For the 1971–75 period, this growth should range between 5.5 and 7.5 per cent a year. These results have depended largely on a wise emphasis on agriculture and a nationwide policy of decentralized, balanced industrial development. The industrial spread reflects strategic factors, the laborabundant nature of the country and inadequate transportation. There are, for instance, now only a handful of commercial jet airplanes in China, and flights are entirely dependent on weather conditions owing to limited guidance facilities common in most parts of the world.
Third, are we and the Chinese prepared to accept our very real differences and still proceed toward the closer mutual understanding that must be the basis of substantive future contact?
I fear that too often the true significance and potential of our new relationship with China has been obscured by the novelty of it all. Pandas and Ping‐Pong, gymnastics and elaborate dinners have captivated our imaginations, and I suspect the Chinese are equally intrigued by some of our more novel captitalistic ways.
In fact, of course, we are experiencing a much more fundamental phenomenon. The Chinese, for their part, are faced with altering a primarily inward focus that they have pursued for a quarter century under their current leadership. We, for our part, are faced with the realization that we have largely ignored a country with one‐fourth of the world's population. When one considers the profound differences in our cultural heritages and our social and economic systems, this is certain to be a long task with much accommodation necessary on both sides.
The social experiment in China under. Chairman Mao's leadership is one of the most important and successful in human history. How extensively China opens up and how the world interprets and reacts to the social innovations and life styles she has developed is certain to have a profound impact on the future of many nations.
Conspiracies [ edit ]
World government [ edit ]
The Rockefellers have long been associated with the idea of a secret world government, New World Order, or One World Order, through institutions such as the Trilateral Commission, which was founded by David Rockefeller to facilitate international economic cooperation and having lots of fancy foreign conferences. Other secretive institutions like the Bilderberg Group are often implicated. Γ]
One of the first conspiracy theorists was Emanuel Josephson in Rockefeller: "Internationalist": The Man Who Misrules The World in 1952. ΐ] Gary Allen's 1976 book The Rockefeller File is a detailed attack on the family and their supposed internationalist conspiracy. Δ] He accuses the Rockefellers of manipulating tax law so they can donate money to trusts and avoid tax but retain control over it. Δ]
They are also accused of being part of a Roman Catholic conspiracy against American Protestantism and freedom of religion, being supposedly the descendants of the Jesuit Roggenfelder family who fled Germany in one of the country's periodic outbursts of anti-Catholicism. Ε] This is despite the fact that most sources say William Sr. and his family were Protestant. Ώ] But theorists like to claim the Rockefellers lied about their religion. Ε]
In 2015, David light-heartedly confirmed the conspiracy theories, saying he had indeed been working for increased international cooperation all his life. Α]
Banking [ edit ]
They supposedly control American money through the Federal Reserve. Ε] In particular, they are in conspiracy with the Rothschild family (Evil Jewish bankers), Warburgs, Goldman Sachs, Lehmans, Kuhn Loeb, and other international financiers. Ζ]
The facts are these. In 1908 following various financial crises, Congress passed the Aldrich-Vreeland Act to examine banking, and Senate Republican leader Nelson Aldrich led the inquiry, meeting with representatives of prominent banks including J P Morgan, National City Bank of New York, and Kuhn Loeb & Co. The National City Bank of New York in particular was closely linked to the Rockefellers, but the Rockefellers also did a lot of business with J P Morgan (which also funded Cornelius Vanderbilt's New York Central Railroad), and John D. Rockefeller Jr was married to Aldrich's daughter Abigail. Aldrich's inquiry led to the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and the subsequent establishment of regional Federal Reserve banks, of which the Federal Reserve Bank of New York was most powerful. The Rockefellers were also major shareholders of the Equitable Trust Company, which merged with Chase National Bank in 1930. Everything was quite closely interrelated.
Conspiracy theorist also point to the role of the Rockefellers in the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland, which was initially founded to handle Germany's World War I reparations, but now "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks" Η] ⎖] . Gates McGarrah formerly of Chase Manhattan/Chase National Bank and the Federal Reserve was its first President. By the way, McGarrah's grandson Richard McGarrah Helms was a senior official at the CIA at the time of John F. Kennedy's assassination. Needless to say, the Rockefellers have also been linked vaguely to amorphous Kennedy assassination conspiracies. ⎗]
Alternative medicine [ edit ]
The Rockefellers have been accused of using their donations to medical charities such as the Institute for Medical Research (now the Rockefeller University in New York) to promote conventional (i.e., scientific, evidence-based) medicine, aid Big Pharma in world domination, and crush alternative medicine. ΐ] ⎘]
World Trade Center [ edit ]
David Rockefeller of the Chase National Bank was supposedly one of the earliest advocates of building the World Trade Center in New York. ⎗]
The two towers of the World Trade Centre, destroyed in the 9/11 attacks, were supposedly nicknamed David and Nelson after the Rockefeller brothers. Ε] And after the towers were destroyed they took revenge or something.
What does it all mean? Who knows? But it must mean something…
Business practices [ edit ]
The Rockefellers are often accused of corrupt business practices, abusing their monopoly position, etc. ΐ] This may have more merit than any of the other theories here, and it's clear that American business has often involved a small group of enormously powerful people scheming together to make as much money as possible. It's called capitalism.
Zika [ edit ]
And obviously the Rockefellers invented the Zika virus and are using it to kill people. Apparently the Rockefellers have provided funding to an organisation called the American Type Culture Collection which sells biological preparations and offers freeze-dried Zika virus agent to reputable researchers. ⎙] ⎚]