Junkers Ju 86E

Junkers Ju 86E


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Junkers Ju 86E

The Junkers Ju 86E was the first military version of the Ju 86 to be powered by BMW radial engines in place of the diesel engines of earlier versions. The diesel engines had not performed well in Spain, and so in the spring of 1937 one Ju 86D-1 was re-engined with two BMW 132 radial engines, licence built versions of the Pratt & Whitney Hornet.

After successful trials the new version of the aircraft entered production, joining the Luftwaffe towards the end of the summer of 1937. The Ju 86E was produced in two versions: The E-1, powered by the 819hp BMW 132 F and the E-2, powered by the 864hp BMW 132 N. Thirty E-1s were built before production moved on to the E-2.


Ju-86e

Both the civilian and military variants of the Ju 86 were delivered to their customers (Lufthansa and the Luftwaffe) in 1936. One of the features that differentiated those aircraft from others of the time was the usage of Jumo 205 diesel engines.

Several aircraft were sent to Spain for trials, which was in the throes of the Civil War at the time. They were delivered to the Condor Legion. Combat sorties showed multiple flaws in the aircraft’s design, the diesel engines’ unreliability in particular. Later on, the Ju 86 was upgraded for radial petrol BMW 132 engines. Nevertheless, it was disliked among the Luftwaffe and was gradually withdrawn from the frontlines soon after the 1939 Polish campaign. The German air force chose more promising aircraft for the role, the Heinkel He 111 was among them.

The Junkers Ju 86 in World of Warplanes is a Tier III Premium German bomber with a powerful bomb load. High altitude performance, a large HP pool, and efficient machinegun turrets allow it to attack ground targets from relative safety and successfully defend against rare fighters that can climb to its altitude. At the same time, this heavy machine cannot enter active dogfights because of its low speed, dynamics, and maneuverability.


Junkers Ju-86

The Junkers Ju 86, developed as a 10-passenger airliner and four-seat bomber, was designed around the Junkers Jumo 205 diesel engine. The first of five prototypes was flown during 1934, its performance proving disappointing but, nevertheless, the type entered production as both airliner and bomber in late 1935. Initial deliveries of Ju 86A-1 pre-production bombers were made in February 1936 and the first Ju 86B pre-production transport for Swissair was delivered in April 1936.

Five Ju 86D-1 bombers with improved Jumo 205C engines served with the Legion Condor during the Spanish Civil War, but the powerplant did not stand up well to combat conditions and the aircraft proved markedly inferior to the Heinkel He 111 . Military export orders included the Ju 86K-1 for South Africa and Sweden, where Saab subsequently licence-built the type the Ju 86K-2 for Hungary, which built 66 and the Ju 86K-6 for Chile and Portugal.

Luftwaffe dissatisfaction with the capability of the Ju 86D led to the far more reliable Ju 86E-1 with B.M.W. 132F radial engines and the Ju 86E-2 with B.M.W. 132Ns improvements introduced during production brought re-designation of the last 40 Ju 86Es on the production line as Ju 86G-1 aircraft, with round glazed noses production ended in 1938. However, in 1939 two Ju 86D airframes were used for conversion as the Jumo 207A-engined prototypes of a high-altitude version with a two-seat pressurised cabin. Successful trials led to two initial production versions, the Ju 86P-1 bomber and Ju 86P-2 reconnaissance aircraft. The latter had a ceiling of about 12800m, and in an effort to gain more altitude a high aspect ratio wing spanning 32.00m was introduced to produce the Ju 86R-1 reconnaissance aircraft and Ju 86R-2 bomber. Only a few reached service, but one demonstrated a ceiling of 14400m. Development of the Ju 86R-3 with supercharged Jumo 208 engines and of the proposed Ju 186 four-engined high-altitude bomber based on the Ju 86 were abandoned. A six-engined Ju 286 high-altitude bomber did not progress beyond the initial planning stage.

Sweden license built 16 Ju86K-1 with either Swedish or Polish built Bristol Pegasus engines. The Swedish aircraft were used in the end as transports and were probably the last to fly leaving service in 1956. One of it's number has been preserved in the Swedish Air Force museum.

America to save the sacred scrolls of Cordoba from falling into the hands of Joseph Stalin!!

the junkers ju86 was an excellent aircraft,the high altitude
variants should have been used for bombing not for
reconnaissance.The last variant Ju86R should have been built in numbers and used as BOMBER.I have something to say.This website is about AVIATION,I don't think stories
about alliens,Indiana Jones and ideas about Nazi songs with Lady Gaga belong here.

REVELL GERMANY has just releases two Model Aircraft kits that are outstanding. One is a 1 /32 kit for the Junkers JU-86 Luftwaffe Bomber used in Spain in 1937. The other kit is a 1 /72 JUNKERS JU-390 six engine Recon Bomber used by SS Flugakapitan Anna Kreisling in KG-200. The JU-86 KIT cost me forty-five dollars. The JU-390 KIT cost me fifty-five dollars.

The Junkers JU-86 was also famous for high altitude recon flights over England at 42,000 feet. That is very impressive!
We in the Iranian Air Force wish to thank President Obama for lifting the ban on F-14 Tomcat parts for our jets. Now we will be able to shoot down ROYAL SAUDI AIR FORCE pilots, American Yankee Doodle Dandy pilots, and of course IAF PILOTS!! What we are worried about is this NAZI SS pilot ANNA KREISLING! We know she operated a KC-135 AWACS jet in 1982 which shot down eight Mig-21's OVER THE Backaa Valley in Lebanon! A high energy laser exploded the fuel tanks on the Migs. Many high energy balls of fire have been seen over Iran! We know this comes from AREA 51! Even Obama is not permitted to go there!
It is not fair to blow up our Nuclear Reactors with flying Saucers that we have no chance against!! Why are hot Nazi Blondes flying FOR the U.S.A. Why did Werner Von Braun and Anna Kreisling help the U.S. Space Program!!

I must have Anna Kreisling in my Broadway musical,"ANNA KREISLING, My Hotsy Totsy Nazi!!" starring JENNY McCarthy, Jane Russell, Angelina Jolie, Lady GAGA, Adolf Hitler and Eva!
We'll make millions! For the opening number I will have Lady GAGA bail out of a Junkers JU-86 AND then land on stage with 1,000 gay Nazi's, singing,"My Dear Fraulein Uncle Hitler!" and the classic,"Dancing in Berlin!" starring that SS Sweetheart Anna Kreisling!!

In 1938 Indiana Jones stole Hitler's Skull Ring which gave him many dark powers over people. Anna Kreisling flew me to Egypt in a Junkers JU-86 to capture Indiana but he had fled to Yemen. We put more petrol in the Junkers and landed at the city of Sana!! After three days I had him cornered and then he took out his whip and left me hanging upside down above a cobra pit!! Anna saved my life and she later captured Indiana Jones and tied him up!! We flew him back to Berlin and delivered Hitler back his ring!! However Indiana Jones and The White Wolf of the Luftwaffe were last seen flying to South America to save the sacred scrolls of Cordoba from falling into the hands of Joseph Stalin!!

Hans Jacob what a "Schauermaerchen " Ha Ha Here some facts : on April the 5th 1940 I flew my first Ju 86 ( the same day also the Do 17)-DS+CM at the airfield Pinnow / Pommerania . The last one on June 10th 1941 (BB+DL)at Berlin Rangsdorf . I did not like it very much ,very labile at its landing gear
My friend Hessinger ,deceased, knight cross ,reconnaisance pilot flew the Ju 86 R3 - over 15,000 ft altitude. I saw pics in his album over Suez and London
.when Spitfires tried to get him and collapsed . He had no weapons but a special cockpit( presurized) , a turbo compressor and wider wings wlk

Hans Jacob what a "Schauermaerchen " Ha Ha Here some facts : on April the 5th 1940 I flew my first Ju 86 ( the same day also the Do 17)-DS+CM at the airfield Pinnow / Pommerania . The last one on June 10th 1941 (BB+DL)at Berlin Rangsdorf . I did not like it very much ,very labile at its landing gear
My friend Hessinger ,deceased, knight cross ,reconnaisance pilot flew the Ju 86 R3 - over 15,000 ft altitude. I saw pics in his album over Suez and London
.when Spitfires tried to get him and collapsed . He had no weapons but a special cockpit( presurized) , a turbo compressor and wider wings wlk

Hi MAP - you have my interest. to which institution are you referring with your usage of the term SAA? If South African Airways, I don't know about any Ju-86's but we did operate Ju-52 3 /m s and still have a fully restored flying example available for public use (used for short flights to recapture the adventure of early passenger flight).

Ya, in 1938 I was at Berlin Templehoff airfield when a Junkers Ju-86 landed. Mein Gott!! Anna Kreisling emerged and took my breath away! I have never seen a more beautiful woman in my life!! There is a story that says she is not human. In 1927 Himmler was hiking with Leni Reifenstahl in the Black Forest when they saw what they thought was a funeral procession. A black king adorned in gold followed a floating golden coffin. Ten slaves which looked Egyptian surronded the coffin, but did not touch it. Himmler watched in horror as the black king produced a knife and he was going to plunge in into this beautiful German woman. Heinrich pulled out his Luger and shot several times in the air!! They fled and as Heinrich and Leni approached the golden coffin, there was a German girl with frost blonde hair. Heinrich revived her and her German speech was different! She had no memories! For the next four years he trained her how to fly and to be studied at his castle!!

The Ju-86 was also powered by 800 HP. Pratt & Whitney radial engines. They were used by S.A.A.. The size of their fleet of Ju-86s is in question. AvComps

Peter, as mentioned elsewhere on this site Steven has lost the plot. You really mustn't beleive very much of what he says if anything at all.

Hi Steven! There could not be any aircraft, shot down by Yak 3 in the middle of 1943. First operational unit with Yak 3 fighters started its operations in the middle of 1944

At least two Ju-86 were sold to Bolivia, South America, to the national airline Lloyd Aereo Boliviano.

DURING THE KURSK OFFENSIVE , I HEARD THAT THERE ARE 6 JUNKERS JU-86P PARTICIPATED IN THE ATTACK AND SUCCESFULLY BOMBED MANY SOVIET ARTILERY BATTERIES, ONE WAS SHOOT DOWN BY SOVIET YAK 3 FIGHTER.


Junkers Military Aircraft of World War Two PDF

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Junkers Military Aircraft of World War Two Mark A

Prior to and during World War II the Junkers Aircraft Company of Dessau Germany produced several aircraft that revolutionized warfare Among them were the Ju87 Stuka key to the success of the Blitzkrieg and highly versatile bomber and transport aircraft including Junkers Ju86 Junkers Ju52 Junkers Ju90290 and later Ju88

Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenwerke AG JFM earlier JCO or JKO in World War I more commonly Junkers was a major German aircraft and aircraft engine manufacturer It produced some of the worlds most innovative and bestknown airplanes over the course of its fiftyplus year history in Dessau Germany

Junkers Ju 86E and Heinkel He 111 H2

Both the civilian and military variants of the Ju 86 were delivered to their customers Lufthansa and the Luftwaffe in 1936 One of the features that differentiated those aircraft from others of the time was the usage of Jumo 205 diesel engines Several aircraft were sent to Spain for trials which was in the throes of the Civil War at the time

World War II In service with Lufthansa the Ju 52 had proved to be an extremely reliable passenger airplane Therefore it was adopted by the Luftwaffe as a standard aircraft model In 1938 the 7th Air Division had five air transport groups with 250 Ju 52s The Luftwaffe had 552 Ju 52s at the start of World War II

Junkers Company Chronological Aircraft List

There are a total of 25 aircraft as part of the Junkers Company Chronological Aircraft List in the Military Factory Please note that some brands are listed separately in the list below World War 2 Aircraft Korean War Aircraft Vietnam War Aircraft Cold War Aircraft a datadriven property used in ranking the top military powers of

102 Best Junkers Ju87 Stuka images in 2019 Military

27 Jan 2019 Explore John St Johns board Junkers Ju87 Stuka on Pinterest See more ideas about Military Aircraft World war two and Air force Discover recipes home ideas style inspiration and other ideas to try

Junkers Ju 86 Military Wiki FANDOM powered by Wikia

The Junkers Ju 86 was a German monoplane bomber and civilian airliner designed in the early 1930s and employed by both sides during World War II The civilian model Ju 86B could carry 10 passengers Two were delivered to Swissair and five to Luft Hansa In addition a single civilian Ju 86Z was delivered to the Swedish AB Aerotransport

World War 2 Aircraft 19391945 Military Factory

WW2 Aircraft 19391945 The air war of World War 2 was just one complicated component of a very complicated war OVERVIEW Compared to World War 1 19141918 World War 2 set the standard for aircraft combat by producing evermore powerful bombers faster fighters and rocket and jetpropelled airframes


Junkers Ju 52 question

Post by Sturm78 » 04 Oct 2018, 23:00

Are the engines of this Ju 52 the standard BMW 132 ?
The central engine in this plane have a different cowling and the three engines have propeller hubs. while most of the copies do not.

Re: Junkers Ju 52 question

Post by ChrisMAg2 » 06 Oct 2018, 05:23

a.) In principle, yes, both photos show Ju 52 with BMW132 engines.

b.) But the difference is in the details other then the different cowlings of the central engine.
- Upper photo shows . the props have spinners.
- . on the left side of the arrow head pointing to the unit crest, there is an intake for a charger. There should be a charger intake under each of the side engines too.
- . the exhaust pipes of the central engine are lead through the fuselage front downwards with the outlets being behind the oil coolers.

That said, it should be safe to assume, the upper photo shows a Ju 52/3mte, (formerly civilian) fast passenger carrier with BMW132G/L engines.
The lower photo shows a standard engined (BMW132A, Dc, F, M, T etc.) carrier/ transporter.

Re: Junkers Ju 52 question

Post by Sturm78 » 08 Oct 2018, 20:40

Thanks for your help, ChrisMAg2

I did not know that there were so many variants of the BMW 132 engine.
What engine mounted each military version of the Ju 52?

Ju 52/3mg3e: BMW 132A 725hp
Ju 52/3mg5e: BMW 132T 830hp
Ju 52/3mg12e: BMW 132L


Indice

Progettazione e sviluppo Modifica

Il progetto dello Junkers Ju 86, come quello dell'Heinkel He 111 e del Dornier Do 17, fu la conseguenza di una specifica richiesta da parte dell'esercito tedesco nel 1932, al fine di dotarsi di un velivolo bimotore che potesse espletare funzioni di bombardamento e ricognizione. Come per altri apparecchi che prevedevano la rimilitarizzazione non troppo palese della Germania hitleriana, vennero seguiti due progetti paralleli, il primo a fini civili ed il secondo, più discreto per evitare sospetti da parte straniera, con finalità militari. In entrambi i casi era essenziale trovare un giusto compromesso tra velocità e capacità di carico. La Junkers scelse di percorrere la strada del contenimento del peso prevedendo l'installazione dei motori Jumo 205 a ciclo diesel di propria progettazione, i quali vantando un consumo specifico inferiore permettevano di imbarcare una minore quantità di carburante. Nel gennaio 1933, il Commissariato del Reich per l'aeronautica prima ed il neofondato Reichsluftfahrtministerium poi, seguirono direttamente gli sviluppi dei tre veicoli nascondendone il loro uso futuro. In fase di valutazione la compagnia aerea nazionale DLH, che era il committente ufficiale dei tre prototipi civili, respinse solamente il Do 17 a causa delle esigue dimensioni della fusoliera di quest'ultimo.

Prototipi Modifica

I primi prototipi civili volarono nel novembre del 1934 mentre le prime versioni militari furono pronte nel 1936. Le sigle dei prototipi dello Ju 86 hanno seguito un insolito schema dovuto alla realizzazione alternativa di un velivolo ad uso militare ed uno ad uso civile.

Il primo velivolo realizzato, al quale era stata assegnata la denominazione Ju 86 V1 (W.Nr. 4901), era il prototipo della versione bombardiere. Dotata di motori Siemens SAM 22B da 550 CV (404 kW) ciascuno, volò per la prima volta il 4 novembre 1934. Il 22 marzo 1935 fu la volta del primo volo del prototipo della versione civile, al quale era stata assegnata la denominazione Ju 86 V2 (W.Nr. 4902). In fase di costruzione era stato dotato anch'esso di motorizzazione Siemens ma prima di compiere il volo inaugurale furono sostituiti con 2 motori Junkers Jumo 205 diesel da 600 PS (441 kW), diventando il prototipo della serie B civile.

Come per altri velivoli della Luftwaffe, l'inizio della guerra civile spagnola fornì l'opportunità per saggiare in combattimento le potenzialità dello Ju 86 nel ruolo di bombardiere a medio raggio, rivelandosi però presto inferiore al coevo Heinkel He 111. All'inizio del febbraio 1937 furono inviati in Spagna, in forza alla Legione Condor (VB/88), quattro Ju 86 D-1, uno dei quali però ebbe una vita breve in quanto solamente dopo qualche incursione, il 26-1, il 23 febbraio venne abbattuto dalle forze aeree repubblicane causando la morte di tre componenti dell'equipaggio e della cattura del quarto. Dalla Germania ne arrivò subito uno per reintegrarne il numero ma nell'estate dello stesso anno un altro D-1 venne perso in un incidente. I restanti tre vennero venduti alle forze nazionaliste alla fine del conflitto.

Lo Ju 86 D-1 venne nuovamente impiegato in forza alla Luftwaffe durante la campagna di Polonia del 1939 ma definitivamente ritirato subito dopo.

Nel gennaio 1940 la Luftwaffe testò il prototipo di una versione d'alta quota, la Ju 86 P. Essa necessitava di un equipaggio di due soli uomini ed era caratterizzata da una nuova cabina pressurizzata, da una nuova ala di maggior lunghezza e motorizzata dagli Jumo 207 A1 a ciclo diesel dotati di turbocompressore. In questa configurazione poteva raggiungere la quota di 12 000 m, all'occorrenza anche superiore, tanto da poter ritenere lo Ju 86 P inattaccabile dai caccia alleati. Per contrastarne la minaccia furono specificatamente progettati il britannico Westland Welkin ed il sovietico Yakovlev Yak-9 PD. A seguito delle soddisfacenti prove di volo la Luftwaffe ordinò di riconvertire 40 vecchi modelli sia in velivoli da bombardamento denominati Ju 86 P-1 sia in ricognitori fotografici d'alta quota denominati Ju 86 P-2, impiegandoli con successo nei cieli sopra la Gran Bretagna, l'Unione Sovietica e il Nord Africa.

Nell'agosto del 1942, nei cieli egiziani, uno Supermarine Spitfire Mk.V modificato riuscì ad abbattere il primo Ju 86 P a circa 14 500 m (circa 49 000 ft) di altezza. Quando successivamente vennero persi altri due P, la Luftwaffe decise nel 1943 di ritirarli definitivamente dal servizio.

La Junkers allora pensò di sviluppare ulteriormente il progetto con lo Ju 86 R per raggiungere, grazie una nuova ala di 32 m e a nuovi motori dotati di eliche a quattro pale, la tangenza massima di 16 000 m e compensare i progressi fatti dai caccia alleati, ma la produzione si limitò ad alcuni prototipi.

Svezia Modifica

Operò con gli Ju 86 K, versione da esportazione dell'azienda tedesca, ai quali si affiancarono quelli prodotti in Svezia su licenza dalla Saab.

La prima fornitura riguardò 3 esemplari di Ju 86 K-1 che si differenziavano dal modello tedesco per alcuni particolari tra cui l'adozione di 2 radiali Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet. La successiva fornitura riguardò la versione Ju 86 K-4, del tutto simile alla K-1 ma motorizzata questa volta con i radiali di produzione britannica Bristol Pegasus III.

Una volta ottenuta la licenza di produzione, la Saab iniziò la realizzazione dello Ju 86 K-2, una versione da esportazione prodotta in 66 esemplari e destinata al Regno di Ungheria [2] , dello Ju 86 K-5, un K-4 motorizzato con i radiali Pegasus XII prodotti anch'essi su licenza in Svezia dalla NOHAB (Nydqvist & Holm AB), e dello Ju 86 K-13, versione bombardiere dotata di radiali Bristol Mercury XIX di produzione polacca e svedese, ribattezzata in Svezia come B 3.

Tutti i velivoli furono utilizzati dai reparti svedesi ma non vennero mai impiegati operativamente in eventi bellici rimanendo in servizio fino al 1958 [3] alcuni finendo la propria carriera convertiti nel ruolo di piattaforme volanti SIGINT [4] .


Junkers Ju 86E - History

Ballermann Sergeant First Class - Panzer IIIL
Posts:373 Joined:Sat Oct 08, 2011 2:03 pm Location:Germany

Re: Guille's PzCorps Support Base - Multipurpose Icons and m

Post by Ballermann » Thu Feb 28, 2013 6:32 pm

guille1434 Major-General - Elite Tiger I
Posts:2687 Joined:Sun Jul 01, 2012 5:32 pm

Re: Guille's PzCorps Support Base - Multipurpose Icons and m

Post by guille1434 » Tue Mar 05, 2013 12:55 am

Hello!
In order to complete the late war units. Here is a jet plane for the USA, the Lockheed P-80. There is one icon for the P-80A fighter, and the other one is for the FP-80A tactical recon aircraft. I think they look "PzCorp-ish" enough (I like a more or less "uniform" or "vanilla" look to the units on the game map).

Edit: Added also a greenish camo looking P-80A.

Feel free to use them in any project you have.
Cheers!

guille1434 Major-General - Elite Tiger I
Posts:2687 Joined:Sun Jul 01, 2012 5:32 pm

Re: Guille's PzCorps Support Base - Multipurpose Icons and m

Post by guille1434 » Tue Mar 05, 2013 1:25 am

guille1434 Major-General - Elite Tiger I
Posts:2687 Joined:Sun Jul 01, 2012 5:32 pm

Re: Guille's PzCorps Support Base - Multipurpose Icons and m

Post by guille1434 » Sun Mar 10, 2013 6:40 pm

Now the turn for some early war German bombers.
Based on the excellent Hungarian Ju-86 icon from the Hungarian Mod v0.4, I made a German Ju-86E in stock looking grey color and another with a camo scheme. Also, I modified the stock game Ju-88 with (I think) better and more visible insignia.

guille1434 Major-General - Elite Tiger I
Posts:2687 Joined:Sun Jul 01, 2012 5:32 pm

Re: Guille's PzCorps Support Base - Multipurpose Icons and m

Post by guille1434 » Sun Mar 10, 2013 7:02 pm

guille1434 Major-General - Elite Tiger I
Posts:2687 Joined:Sun Jul 01, 2012 5:32 pm

Re: Guille's PzCorps Support Base - Multipurpose Icons and m

Post by guille1434 » Sun Mar 10, 2013 7:43 pm

And then another special comissioned work, this time the subject is the Reggiane Re.2000.

Based on the icon from the Hungarian Mod v0.4, I made two icons, one with a camo scheme (nearly identical to the Hungarian aircraft) and the other in a camo scheme but based on the PzCorps stock plain light brown color used for Italian units.
Besides I also modified (improved?) the stock game icon to look more like the other two icons, because it outline seemed more similar to ther real plane to me. Mainly I made the engine cowling slightly longer and slimmer, and touched up the pilot cover area. The color scheme of this last one is the stock game light "Italian" brown color. I hope you like them!
Cheers!

guille1434 Major-General - Elite Tiger I
Posts:2687 Joined:Sun Jul 01, 2012 5:32 pm

Re: Guille's PzCorps Support Base - Multipurpose Icons and m

Post by guille1434 » Sun Mar 10, 2013 8:25 pm

Magic1111 1st Lieutenant - 15 cm sFH 18
Posts:839 Joined:Mon Feb 25, 2013 8:11 pm Location:Germany Contact:

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Operasyonel geçmiş [ düzenle ]

Bombardıman uçağı, He 111'den daha düşük olduğu İspanya İç Savaşı'nda sahada test edildi. Dört Ju 86D-1, Şubat 1937'nin başlarında İspanya'ya geldi, ancak birkaç sortiden sonra bunlardan biri 23 Şubat'ta Cumhuriyetçi tarafından vuruldu. üç mürettebatını kaybeden savaşçılar öldü ve biri yakalandı. Almanya'dan bir yedek uçak gönderildi, ancak 1937 yazında bir diğeri bir kazada kayboldu ve kalan üç uçak Milliyetçi hava kuvvetlerine satıldı. Ju 86'lar 1939 Polonya işgalinde tekrar kullanıldı , ancak kısa süre sonra emekli oldu. Ocak 1940'ta Luftwaffe , Ju 86P prototipini daha uzun kanat açıklığı ve basınçlı kabinle test etti. Junkers Jumo 207A-1 turboşarjlı iki zamanlı, karşıt pistonlu dizel motorlar ve iki kişilik bir ekip. Ju 86P, zaman zaman 12.000 m (39.000 ft) ve daha yüksek yüksekliklerde uçabiliyordu ve düşman avcılarından güvende olduğu hissediliyordu . İngiliz Westland Welkin ve Sovyet Yakovlev Yak-9PD , bu tehdide karşı koymak için özel olarak geliştirildi. [12]

İkinci Dünya Savaşı'nın patlak vermesiyle, Güney Afrika'nın Ju 86Z'leri militarize edildi ve savunma silahları ve harici bomba raflarıyla bombardıman uçakları olarak silahlandırıldı. Bu uçaklar başlangıçta tek Ju 86K-1 ile birlikte kıyı devriyeleri için kullanıldı ve Aralık 1939'da Alman abluka koşucusu SS Watussi'nin durdurulmasında önemli bir rol oynadı . Mayıs 1940'ta, 12 numaralı filoyu yeniden donatmak için kullanıldı. Doğu Afrika Harekatı'nda Haziran 1940'tan itibaren konuşlandırılan SAAF , 14 Haziran 1940'ta ilk bombalama görevlerini gerçekleştirdi. [13] Daha modern uçaklar piyasaya çıktıkça, Güney Afrika Ju 86'lar filodan filoya geçti ve son uçakları görüldü. 22 numaralı Filo SAAF ile kullanın , onu kıyı keşif rolünde Avro Anson ile birlikte kullanan , sonunda Eylül 1942'de Ju 86'larını emekli etti. [14]

Yeni Ju 86P prototipinin denemelerinden memnun kalan Luftwaffe , 40 kadar eski model bombardıman uçağının Ju 86P-1 yüksek irtifa bombardıman uçağına ve Ju 86P-2 foto - keşif uçağına dönüştürülmesini emretti . Bunlar İngiltere, Sovyetler Birliği ve Kuzey Afrika'da birkaç yıl başarılı bir şekilde çalıştı . Ağustos 1942'de, değiştirilmiş bir Supermarine Spitfire V , Mısır üzerinde 14.500 m (49.000 ft) rakımda bir tane düşürdü iki kişi daha kaybolduğunda, Ju 86P'ler 1943'te hizmetten çekildi.

Junkers geliştirilen Ju 86R için Luftwaffe'den 16.000 m (52.500 ft) kadar - - hatta daha yüksek irtifalarda yeteneğine büyük kanatları ve yeni motorlarını kullanarak, ancak üretim prototipler ile sınırlıydı.


Зміст

Компанія Junkers отримала завдання на розробку двомоторного середнього бомбардувальника в січні 1934 року. Як і в випадку за He 111 розробка бойового літака маскувалась під розробку цивільного.

Був продовженням однодвигунового Ju 60 і його варіанту Ju 160. Двомоторний суцільнометалевий низькоплан з двокілевим оперенням. Фюзеляж овального перетину і дволонжеронне крило з гладкою обшивкою. Планувалось встановити 6-ти циліндрові дизельні двигуни Jumo 205C, але вони ще не були готові, тому на першому прототипі літака Ju 86ab було використано 9-ти циліндрові мотори SAM 22. Перший політ відбувся 4 листопада 1934 року, а в січні в повітря піднявся прототип Ju 86cd. Під час перших польотів Ju 86, що ще не мали озброєння, було виявлено низка недоліків, головним з яких була погана реакція на рулі, також була недостатньою поздовжня стійкість.

Дизельні двигуни на другий прототип було встановлено в березні 1940, тоді ж було встановлено стрілецьке озброєння. 4 квітня в повітря піднявся прототип 10-ти місного пасажирського літака, в якому було встановлені двигуни Jumo 205C, а також перенесено паливні баки з фюзеляжу в крила. Четвертий прототип, теж пасажирський варіант, був готовий в травні, а в кінці 1935 почалось серійне виробництво.

Хоча проект відрізнявся великою кількістю нововведень, характеристики двигунів були погані. Коли почалася війна, літак швидко прибрали з фронту, хоча висотні екземпляри залишилися як розвідники. Льотчики скаржилися на недостатній огляд з кабіни Ju 86, і багато літаків були пошкоджені в нещасних випадках при посадці, коли льотчики втрачали з поля зору землю при підході. Випускався в варіантах бомбардувальника і (з 1940 року) — висотного розвідника (Ju 86R-1 і R-2). У 1937 році на озброєння надійшов Ju 86Е-1 із зіркоподібними двигунами BMW 132, але в цей час вже були готові кращі бомбардувальники. [1]

  • Ju 86A — чотиримісний середній бомбардувальник з двигунами Jumo 205C-4 потужністю 600 к.с. Захисне озброєння складалось з трьох 7,92-мм кулеметів MG 15 — по одному в носі, хвості і під фюзеляжем. Маса бомбового навантаження — 800 кг. (42 екз.)
  • Ju 86B/Ju 86C — пасажирські літаки з двигунами Jumo 205C-4 (16 екз.)
  • Ju 86DJu 86A з подовженим хвостом і збільшеними паливними баками. Деякі літаки мали модифіковані для поліпшення керування хвостовими обтічники. (до 160 екз.)
  • Ju 86E — бомбардувальник з 9-ти циліндровими двигунами повітряного охолодження BMW 132F потужністю 810 к.с., або BMW 132N потужністю 865 к.с. Маса бомбового навантаження зросла до 1000 кг. (30 екз.)
  • Ju 86G — змінено носову частину. (40 екз.)
  • Ju 86K — експортний варіант бомбардувальника. Виготовлявся в багатьох модифікаціях, з різними двигунами. Зокрема виготовлялись наступні варіанти:
    • Ju 86K-1/Ju 86K-4 — виготовлялися для Швеції. Оснащувались двигунами Bristol Pegasus різних модифікацій.
    • Ju 86K-2 — виготовлявся для Угорщини. Оснащувався двигунами WM 14K (ліцензійний варіант французького двигуна GR 14K).
    • Ju 86K-6 — варіант з двигунами Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet. Постачався для ВПС Чилі і Португалії.
    • Ju 86K-13 — виготовлявся в Швеції за ліцензією.
    Ju 86D Ju 86E-1
    Довжина 17,86 м 17,86 м
    Висота 4,7 м 4,7 м
    Розмах крил 22,5 м 22,5 м
    Площа крил 82 м² 82 м²
    Маса пустого 5800 кг 5890 кг
    Маса спорядженого 8000 кг 8200 кг
    Потужність 2 x 600 к. с. 2 x 810 к. с.
    Максимальна швидкість 325 км/год 360 км/год
    Операційна дальність 570 км 440 км
    Максимальна дальність польоту 1500 км 1350 км
    Практична стеля 5900 м 7500 м

    Люфтваффе Редагувати

    П'ять Ju 86D-1 (з) були випробувані в бойових умовах легіоном «Кондор». В боях He 111 показав кращі характеристики ніж Ju 86, що вплинуло на воєнне замовлення. Два Ju 86, які вціліли в боях використовувались в ВПС Іспанії до 1942 року.

    В Люфтваффе Ju 86 були замінені на He 111 і Do 17, і 1 вересня 1939 року тільки одна авіагрупа була оснащена Ju 86G IV/KG 1, але вона не брала участь в польській кампанії, а в грудні 1939 року теж була переозброєна. В подальшому вони також використовувались як транспортні і навчальні. Дещо довше використовувались висотні варіанти Ju 86P/R. [1]

    До січня 1941 року було сформовано групу з чотирьох ескадрилей Ju 86P. Діючи з Північної Німеччини, вони здійснювали бойові і розвідувальні польоти над Британськими островами. В ході підготовки до операції «Барбаросса» німецька повітряна розвідка змогла виявити систему оборони протистоять радянських військ, розташування їх командних пунктів і практично всіх радянських аеродромів. Значна частка цих відомостей була отримана за допомогою розвідників Ju 86P, які здійснювали польоти з аеродромів поблизу Будапешта і Кракова. З початком вторгнення в Радянський Союз на Східний фронт були перекинуті три ескадрильї групи, четверта залишилася на Заході і продовжувала вести розвідку з граничних висот.

    1941 року висотні Ju 86 здійснювали безкарні польоти над Москвою, проводячи повітряну розвідку. Наявні на озброєнні СРСР літаки виявилися непідготовленими для ведення вогню на великих висотах при низьких температурах. Було потрібно терміново озброїти ППО висотними винищувачами і кисневим обладнанням. У 1943 р за завданням Державного Комітету Оборони ДКБ Лавочкіна приступило до роботи зі створення висотного винищувача шляхом установки на літак Ла-5 турбокомпресорів ТК-3 конструкції ЦИАМ. Для отримання стелі висоти близько 14 км крім установки ТК були збільшені площа крила і оперення, встановлений новий гвинт, знято бронювання і одна гармата. Однак під час заводських випробувань літак зазнав аварії. У 1944 році роботи по створенню висотного винищувача були продовжені на базі серійного Ла-7. У липні 1944 року почалися заводські випробування. З огляду на тривале доведення ВМГ з ТК, випробування однієї з дослідних машин, що отримала заводський індекс «116», тривали до початку 1946 року, після чого було припинено як такі, що втратили актуальність. Не виправдалися також сподівання, що покладалися на Як-9ПД з нагнітачами Доллежаля, і на МіГ-11 з турбокомпресорами. Радянська авіація так і не змогла нічого протиставити німецькому Ju 86.

    Хоча під час нальотів на Британію Ju 86Р часто скидали на різні цілі тільки по одній бомбі, проте були як більмо на оці для винищувальної авіації Британії. Потрібні були великі зусилля, щоб зупинити «Юнкерси». Для перехоплення був підготовлений поспіхом модифікований «Спітфайр» Mk VI з герметизованою кабіною і крилом збільшеного розмаху, але жодна спроба не досягла успіху — лише в одному випадку йому вдалося відкрити вогонь по Ju 86P, який перебував над ним, і тут же він втратив швидкість. «Юнкерс», пікіруючи, знижувався з висоти 12 200 м до 150 м і зникав з поля зору «Спітфайра». Останні 12 бомбардувань Британії ці літаки здійснили 9 вересня 1942 року. Попри те, що перехоплювачі неодноразово виявляли Ju 86, їм не вдавалося їх вразити до 24 серпня 1942 року, коли спеціально полегшений «Спітфайр» Mk V, який вилетів з бази в Абукірі (Єгипет), перехопив Ju 86P і збив його на висоті 12 800 м на північ від Каїра. На «Юнкерси» відразу ж встановили внизу під фюзеляжем висувну гондолу з кулеметом MG-17 для стрільби назад (при його розгортанні в бойове положення швидкість польоту падала), але «Спітфайри» з Абукіра незабаром збили ще два Ju 86Р, і ескадра 2.(F)/AufklGr 123 до серпня 1943 року припинила використовувати ці літаки.


    Screaming Bird of Prey: How the Ju-87 Stuka exceeded its life span and carried the Luftwaffe through WWII

    A Junkers Ju-87 begins to roll in on a target in the Balkans during the invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941. The "little bomber" was considered outdated before WWII even began, but it wound up serving the Luftwaffe for five and a half years of nonstop combat. (Sueddeutsche Zeitung) ( Alamy )

    Never has a warplane so obsolete, vulnerable and technologically basic wrought so much damage to its enemies as did the Junkers Ju-87 Stuka. Even as Germany invaded Poland and triggered World War II, its Ministry of Aviation (ministerium, or RLM) was hard at work on a replace- Reichsluftfahrtment for its dive bomber, and the early Ju-87B was intended to be the last model made.

    No surprise, since typically an air force begins development of the next-generation aircraft the instant the current machine goes into service. But hard as they tried, the Germans never came up with a Stuka successor, so the angular, archaic “little bomber,” as the Luftwaffe called it, was the airplane that on September 1, 1939, dropped the first bombs of the war, and on May 4, 1945, flew the final Luftwaffe ground-assault mission.

    The very last propaganda film made by the Luftwaffe showed Stukas attacking Soviet tanks on the outskirts of Berlin, smoke streaming from their big antitank cannons. That’s 5½ years of nonstop combat by an airplane adjudged by some to be too primitive, too slow and too vulnerable before the war even began.

    Granted there have been inexcusably ugly aircraft, but like so many designed-for-a-mission utilitarian airplanes — the Consolidated PBY comes to mind—the Ju-87 looks better the longer you consider its rugged lines. One Stuka admirer calls it “a flying swastika,” thanks to its angularity and coarseness.

    But that same straightforwardness made the Stuka easy to manufacture, repair and maintain. Who needs elliptical wings, stylish P-51 radiator doghouses or retractable landing gear on a bomb truck intended to fly to a target little farther away than its pilot can see, do a job and rumble back home again?

    Junkers Ju-87 The Rolls-Royce Kestral-powered Ju-87 V-1 prototype first flew on September 17, 1935. (SDASM/Alamy) (Alamy)

    The Stuka’s ugly reputation was also influenced by the fact that the airplane is often envisioned—and frequently depicted in newsreels of the day—pummeling Warsaw and the Low Countries, its “Jericho Trompeten” sirens wailing. Nine Ju-87s were also used at one time or another during the Spanish Civil War, but they were operated only occasionally and conservatively.

    Even Spanish Nationalist pilots weren’t allowed near them, since they were still considered to be secret weapons. The small Spanish market town of Guernica, the subject of Pablo Picasso’s famous antiwar painting, was bombed by Heinkel He-111s and Junkers Ju-52s, horizontal bombers heedlessly killing civilians as they carpet-bombed, exactly the kind of mission the Stuka was not intended to fly.

    It’s hard to cast a kindly light on any bomber, but the Ju-87 was designed to attack and destroy specific military targets, not civilians. Had Stukas been used to bomb the important bridge that was the primary target of the raid, the world would have long ago forgotten Guernica.

    The Spanish war did make it plain that the Ju-87 would be a useful weapon. When Bf-109Bs arrived on the scene, the Nationalist rebels soon claimed control of the air. Republican anti-aircraft artillery was pretty primitive, so the Stukas bombed at will—as they were intended to—and even the worst drops typically landed within less than 100 feet of the target. Good hits were either on target or no more than 15 feet off-center.

    Dive bombing was by no means a German invention, though they refined the tactic to a degree never seen before—or since. The British were the first to try moderate-dive-angle attacks, during World War I, and both the U.S. and Japan experimented with diving delivery between the wars. In fact, it was Japanese interest in the tactic that led them to commission Heinkel to design a dive bomber to rival the American Curtiss F8C Helldiver, which became the He-50 biplane.

    The Japanese actually bought and tested two Ju-87s before WWII, but placed no further orders— probably because their own Heinkel-influenced Aichi D3A1 “Val” dive bomber was already excellent, as Pearl Harbor would prove.

    Legend has it that when WWI ace Ernst Udet, then a civilian, attended the 1935 Cleveland Air Races, he saw some U.S. Navy Curtiss F11C-2 Goshawk biplane dive bombers and was dazzled by their performance. Hermann Göring, who wanted to entice Udet back into the reborn Luftwaffe, imported two export-version Hawk IIs for the ace’s use. Udet did divebombing demonstrations during airshows in Germany, the myth continues, and convinced the Luftwaffe that it would be a useful tactic. Thus the Stuka was born, with Udet thereafter credited as its “father.”

    Well, not exactly, as the rental car commercials used to say. The Stuka design had already been finalized and was in mock-up form when Udet became enamored of the Curtiss, and he never did airshow bombing, just enthusiastic aerobatics. But Udet certainly was a verticalbombing proponent, and his one important role in the Stuka’s development was that when RLM Technical Director Wolfram von Richthofen (the Red Baron’s cousin) canceled the Ju-87 program— Richthofen thought that a slow, cumbersome, diving Stuka would never survive the anti-aircraft guns toward which it was necessarily pointed—Udet happened the next day to be given Richthofen’s job. His first move was to countermand that order, so the Stuka survived.

    “Stuka” became the Ju-87’s popular name, but it’s actually a generic term. Stuka is short for one of those German freight-train words, Sturkampfflugzeug, which translates as “diving combat aircraft.” So to call a Ju-87 a Stuka was just like naming the P-51 “Fighter” or the B-17 “Bomber.” Nobody cares: The Ju-87 will forever remain the Stuka.

    Popular accounts of Ju-87 raids invariably mention the airplane’s sirens, wind-driven devices on the front of each landing gear leg that the Germans called Jericho’s Trumpets. The simple wooden props that drove them could be clutched and de-clutched electro-hydraulically— a typical example of German overengineering. What did they sound like? Well, forget fire engines, the noise was exactly like the sound in every classic Hollywood movie’s approximation of an airplane’s final dive to destruction—the rising, grinding wail of an over-revving engine. The noise was apparently as annoying to Stuka pilots as it was to troops being bombed, so many units dispensed with the extra drag and complication of the trumpets, though reports of their occasional use persevere into 1943.

    The Germans eventually preferred to mount wind-whistles on the fins of Stuka bombs, another development beloved of the film business. In movies, bombs all whistle. In real life, the only bombs that whistled were some dropped from Stukas.

    It’s not widely known that the peace-loving Swedes, those professional neutrals during Europe’s wars, were contributors to the development of the Stuka. To circumvent the punishing provisions of the Versailles Treaty, Hugo Junkers established an aircraft factory in Sweden. The facility was no secret, but it allowed operation free of pesky oversight by treaty inspectors, who had no authority in Sweden. There, Junkers developed the K.47, a heavily strutted and braced radial engine monoplane (other dive bombers of the time were all biplanes) optimized for diving and equipped with both Junkers dive brakes and what would become the Ju-87’s automatic pullout mechanism.

    Though the K.47 contributed only in the broadest sense to the prototype that became the Stuka, Swedish test pilots enthusiastically performed hundreds of dives with it and refined diving procedures and methods. Hermann Pohlmann designed the K.47 under the direction of Karl Plauth, a WWI fighter pilot, and Pohlmann went on to engineer the Ju-87 after Plauth died in the crash of a Junkers prototype.

    The sole benefit of dive bombing is accuracy. Imagine running across a golf green as fast as you can while trying to drop a ball into the cup from eye level. Now imagine standing directly above the cup and sighting from the ball to the cup, then dropping it. The former is classic horizontal bombing, and its accuracy depends on a bombsight that can calculate a variety of parameters to create the proper parabola from bomb bay to target. The latter is dive bombing, and if the dive is truly vertical, the flight of the bomb will follow the path of the bomber to wherever the airplane is pointed—at a tank, a ship, a bunker, a building.

    Ju-87 dive It was the Stuka's ability to perform (and recover from), a near vertical dive that gave it the ability to place its bombs directly on a specific target. (National Archives)

    The Ju-87 was one of the only dive bombers that could actually perform a vertical dive without surpassing V NE— never-exceed speed. Most dive bombers couldn’t put the nose more than about 70 degrees down, though the Vultee Vengeance was also said to be a truly vertical bomber. The Stuka’s under-wing dive brakes, a Hugo Junkers invention, were remarkably effective despite their small size and simplicity, and apparently the airplane’s bluff chin radiator, large wheel pants, upright greenhouse and general avoidance of drag reduction sufficed to maintain a 375-mph vertical dive speed. (Later models could dive at up to 405 mph.)

    Some Stuka pilots entered a dive by half-rolling the airplane onto its back and then pulling positive Gs to dive, others simply bunted from level flight into the dive. Standing on the rudder pedals to keep from doing a face-plant into the instrument panel is difficult enough, even with the help of a shoulder harness, but trying to aim at a target while simultaneously ignoring anti-aircraft fire must have been truly challenging.

    British test pilot Eric “Winkle” Brown spent an hour flying a captured Ju-87D and later wrote: “A dive angle of 90 degrees is a pretty palpitating experience, for it always feels as if the aircraft is over the vertical and is bunting, and all this while terra firma is rushing closer with apparent suicidal rapidity. In fact I have rarely seen a specialist dive bomber put over 70 degrees in a dive, but the Ju-87 was a genuine 90-degree screamer…the Ju-87 felt right standing on its nose, and the acceleration to 335 mph was reached in about 4,500 feet, speed thereafter creeping up slowly to the absolute permitted limit of 375 mph, so that the feeling of being on a runaway roller coaster experienced with most other dive bombers was missing. I must confess that I had a more enjoyable hour’s dive-bombing practice than I had ever experienced with any other aircraft of this specialist type. Somehow the

    Ju-87D did not appear to find its natural element until it was diving steeply. Obviously the fixed undercarriage and large-span dive brakes of the Junkers were a highly effective drag combination.” Ju-87s had “Stuka-vizier” gyro-stabilized bombsights developed by the famous German optical house Zeiss they were basically gunsights modified for vertical guidance. Stuka pilots also had half a protractor’s worth of angle lines etched in red into the right-hand canopy window, which when matched to the horizon gave them their dive angles. Another unusual Stuka feature was a large window in its belly, between the pilot’s feet, so that he could keep the target in view as he prepared to roll into his dive. Unfortunately, it was usually useless, covered with a thick film of engine oil leakage streaming aft.

    One of the Ju-87’s advanced features, at least for that era, was an automatic pullout mechanism, to avoid the possibility of pilots being overcome by target fixation or rendered unable to fly by the effects of high-G pullouts. It was a simple hydraulic device. Once the pilot had trimmed nose-down for the dive and to counteract the increased airspeed, it released the trim setting when the ordnance was pickled and reset the tab to command a pullout that typically ran to between 5 and 6 Gs. In those days long before G-suits and abdomen-tightening yells, only the strongest Stuka pilots and gunners avoided at least briefly graying out, but the Stuka did the flying for them.

    If they trusted it to do so, that is. Many Ju-87 pilots were leery of the automatic pullout feature and preferred to do the flying themselves. During training dives against a floating target in the Baltic soon after the automatic pullout mechanism was introduced, at least three Stukas went straight into the sea, which certainly didn’t endear the device to pilots.

    The pullout was also the point at which a Stuka was most vulnerable, its speed paying off rapidly as it clawed for altitude, following a predictable course and unable to maneuver. Allied pilots who opposed Stukas didn’t bother trying to catch them in a dive they waited until the Germans released their bombs and pulled out. Ju-87s were intended to operate only where the Luftwaffe had complete air superiority and could make bomb runs with impunity. Nobody ever meant for them to go head-to-head with eight-gun Spitfires and Hurricanes.

    During the Battle of Britain, Stukas were downed by the dozens while trying to do a job—strategic rather than tactical bombing—for which they were never intended. They were ground- support airplanes, designed to work in tandem with tanks. Yet at the classic tank battle of El Alamein, in the North African desert, Stukas were never a factor, since RAF and South African Air Force Kittyhawks, for the most part, had by that time gotten the upper hand over fuel-starved Luftwaffe Me-109s and Italian Macchi MC.202s.

    There were Ju-87s in North Africa nonetheless. “Apart from a few improvised fighters, we had no dive bombers at all,”wrote Alan Moorehead in The Desert War. “It is useless for the military strategists to argue, as they will and fiercely, that the Stuka is a failure and very vulnerable. Ask the troops in the field. Its effect on morale alone made it worthwhile in the Middle East as long as we had insufficient fighters.”

    After the Battle of Britain, the RAF proclaimed that the Stuka was finished as an offensive weapon, beaten bloody by Spitfires and Hurricanes. That myth has become part of Stuka lore and is one reason why, as a British historian put it, “More crap has been written about the Stuka than about any other airplane in history.” During the five years after the Battle of Britain and the RAF’s haughty pronouncement, the hundreds of thousands of tons of merchant shipping and warships sunk, and thousands of Soviet tanks destroyed, made it obvious the Ju-87 could still get the job done.

    Like the Slow-But-Deadly Douglas SBD, the Stuka turned out to be a superb anti-shipping weapon. Stuka pilots quickly learned to attack from astern, so they could easily follow a ship’s evasive actions. They often dived on a ship at a 45- degree angle and fired their machine guns as a telltale.“When the first of our…bullets were observed to be hitting the water in front of the ship’s bow, we pulled the bomb release,” said one former Stuka pilot quoted in Peter C. Smith’s book Junkers Ju 87 Stuka. “There was very little chance for a merchant ship of any size attacked with this Stuka tactic,” Smith wrote.

    While the RAF was dismissing the Stuka as irrelevant after its poor showing in the Battle of Britain, Ju-87s essentially destroyed the Royal Navy’s Mediterranean fleet. RAF Air Marshal Arthur Tedder said, “Our fighter pilots weep for joy when they see [Stukas].” At the time, he was reassuring Royal Navy Admiral Andrew Cunningham, whose armored-deck aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious, and its support ships, would soon be battered so badly by Stukas off Malta that it was out of action for nearly a year. Stukas also thoroughly chased the Royal Navy out of Norway’s waters.

    Yet Tedder wasn’t far off the mark. Luftwaffe Messerschmitt and Focke Wulf pilots called Ju-87s “fighter magnets,” and depending on whether they preferred to die in bed or collect Iron Crosses, they feared or enjoyed being assigned to Stuka-escorting missions. Two Ju-87 tactics were used to great effect in the Vietnam War. One was employing forward air controllers (FACs), a concept developed by the Germans during the Polish blitzkreig. Stuka UHF radios were mounted in tanks or other armored vehicles, and were manned by Luftwaffe officers schooled in ground-support tactics. They directed strikes by Stukas overhead against any targets impeding the panzers’ advance.

    The other was what has come to be called the daisy-cutter—a bomb that explodes several feet above the ground rather than penetrating the earth and dissipating its energy in making a crater. A belt-high blast wreaks terrible damage on personnel. The Germans approached fuzing the bomb to go off at this height in the simplest way possible: They attached a 3-foot-long metal rod to the impact fuze in the bomb’s nose, to set it off when the rod touched the ground. At first, the rods penetrated soft ground without setting off the bomb, so they learned to weld a 3-inch-diameter disk to the tip. The same technique was used 25 years later by the U.S. Air Force.

    Many assume that because the Stuka was a bomb truck, it must have flown like one. Untrue, according to former Ju-87 pilots who have talked and written about what a delightful, light and responsive airplane it was to fly—easy to handle, a piece of cake to land and one of those rare flying machines without a vice. The Ju-87 was nose-heavy by design, and Allied pilots who flew captured Stukas said the airplane felt “just right” when dived vertically. One RAF pilot described its handling as “so light that there was a marked tendency to overcontrol.” Perhaps it was a function of the unusual Junkers-design floating ailerons (and flaps). Further proof that the Stuka was not just a manly man’s airplane was that a surprising amount of the preproduction testing of all models was carried out by two women pilots— the famous Hanna Reitsch, whose specialty was dive-brake testing, and Countess Melitta Schenk von Stauffenberg, the sister-in-law of anti-Hitler conspiracist Claus von Stauffenberg.

    Ju-87s were produced in several successive variants, inevitably requiring more power, more range, more bomb-lifting ability. The Ju-87B was the classic—the one with the big wheel pants, squared-away greenhouse and vertically louvered, overbite chin radiator. It’s the version that flew during the early-war blitzkreigs and the Battle of Britain, and it could carry a 1,100-pound main bomb. It had been preceded by the Ju-87A, the first production series, but the underpowered “Anton” really wasn’t a combat-ready design.

    The later Ju-87D, the “Dora,” was an up-engined, more aerodynamic version with a streamlined canopy, a twin-gun rolling turret rather than the“Bertha’s”single gun pivoting on a hole through the aft canopy, and only an oil cooler under the nose, the engine-coolant radiators having been moved to underwing positions. The Dora could carry a bomb weighing almost 3,900 pounds, which the Luftwaffe felt it needed to penetrate major fortifications.

    Between them came “the Stuka that never was,” the Ju-87C. It was to be a tail-hooked, folding-wings navalized version, back when Germany was still working on its potent new carrier, Graf Zeppelin. Flown in prototype form, the C was canceled when work on Graf Zeppelin stopped. Though legend has it that Leroy Grumman invented the Wildcat’s twist-and-fold wings while playing with a paperclip, the Ju-87C also had wings that folded straight aft with the leading edges pointing down. The Wildcat’s first flight preceded that of the folding-wing “Caesar” by almost nine months, but it’s doubtful that either company was aware of the other’s development work.

    One of the Ju-87C’s most unusual features was landing gear struts that could be blown off with explosive bolts, to allow the airplane to ditch without the fixed gear digging in and flipping it. This feature was carried over to the Dora, assumedly to clean the airplane up for a belly landing on rough ground. The Caesar also had four air-filled flotation bags—two in the fuselage, one in each wing—that supposedly would have allowed it to stay afloat for up to three days after ditching.

    The Ju-87R (the R stood for Reichtweite, or range, rather than being part of a normal alphabetic progression) was a longer-legged version of the Ju-87B, and its extra wing tanks, which increased range from a supposed 340 miles to 875, were incorporated into most succeeding Stukas. Some Ju-87Rs were rigged to tow gliders—not to carry troops but to lug a Stuka unit’s own supplies, tools, spares and other maintenance stores.

    Ju-87 tank killer Armed with powerful 37mm Panzerknacker anti-tank cannons, the Ju-87G traded the role of dive bomber for that of a potent tank killer. (National Archives)

    The Ju-87G, one of the most effective Stuka models, was no longer a dive bomber and didn’t even have dive brakes. The G was armed with a huge 37mm, 12-round anti-tank cannon under each wing. The cannons used the barrels and receivers of a cumbersome flak gun that dated back to World War I, but they were potent against Soviet T-34 tanks. Firing one tungsten-cored explosive round at a time required a precise gunner. T-34s were most vulnerable from astern, where there was little armor and lots of gas. Good shots such as Hans-Ulrich Rudel, who claimed 519 Soviet tanks destroyed (see “Eagle of the Eastern Front,” July 2011), could put a round into the unprotected space between the bottom of the turret and the top of even the most heavily armored T-34’s hull and blow the turret off. The top 58 Stuka pilots on the Russian Front eliminated some 3,700 Soviet tanks. But the Soviets were building that many new T-34s every three months in 1943, so Stukas were a small finger in a big dike.

    Not all Eastern Front Stukas were tank-busters. Filling what must have been one of the most unusual military occupation specialties in any armed force, Sergeant Hermann Dibbel was one of several special Stuka skywriters. Every clear day, Dibbel would go over the Soviet lines in his Ju-87 and spell out in augmented exhaust smoke appeals to the Russians to surrender. Dibbel had already been credited with sinking a British cruiser and destroying 30 Soviet tanks, and he later flew similar missions over Yugoslavia entreating Tito’s partisans to surrender. Whether or not his smoky appeals worked, they led him to a new career. After the war, he became a skywriting instructor.

    The Stuka was finally reaching the end of its useful life. At the beginning of WWII, a Ju-87 had a life expectancy of 10½ months. By 1941, it was little better than half that, and as Soviet fighters found their groove after the disastrous first months of Operation Barbarossa, a Stuka could expect to live for just over four days of combat.

    Only two intact Stukas remain—one in the Chicago Museum of Industry and the second in the RAF Museum at Hendon. Neither is flyable, though when the 1969 film Battle of Britain was in production, plans were laid to restore the Hendon Ju-87 to flight for use in the movie. A pilot from the film company, Vivian Bellamy, reportedly climbed into the museum Stuka, cranked it through three blades and the Jumo V-12 lit off and idled perfectly. But the project turned out to be too rich even for a film studio’s mega-million budget. Instead, three Percival Proctor lightplanes were modified to resemble Stukas and were thereafter known as “the Proctukas,” suggesting some fearsome medical instrument. They were also thereafter known as some of the most dangerous and barely airworthy aircraft ever approved for flight. Obviously unable to endure even the most gentle of dives, they were scrapped, and radio-controlled models were used instead.

    It was either divine justice or a bad joke that the last operational Ju-87s in the world were two survivors flown as trainers after the war by one of the Reich’s first conquests—the postwar air force of Czechoslovakia, which by then had become a Soviet satellite.

    For further reading, frequent contributor Stephan Wilkinson recommends: The Junkers Ju 87 Stuka, by Peter C. Smith and Junkers Ju 87, by Eddie J. Creek. Additionally, read about the legendary Stuka Pilot Hans-Ulrich Rudel’s final mission, from the March 2015 issue of Aviation History Magazine.

    Screaming Bird of Prey was originally published in the September 2013 issue of Aviation History Magazine. To subscribe, click here.


    Watch the video: Rc Junkers Ju-86E Landing Gear Operation